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   Child slavery is the slavery of children. The enslavement of children
   can be traced back through history. Even after the abolition of
   slavery, children continue to be enslaved and trafficked in modern
   times, which is a particular problem in developing countries.
   [ ]


     * 1 History
     * 2 Modern day
          + 2.1 Trafficking
          + 2.2 Child soldiers
          + 2.3 Forced labor
     * 3 See also
     * 4 Notes
     * 5 External links


   Child slavery refers to the slavery of children below the age of
   majority. Many children have been sold into slavery in the past for
   their family to repay debts or crimes or earn some money if the family
   were short of cash. A scholar retold a story about a mother where "her
   predicament shattered the privilege of thinking of her children in
   purely personal and sentimental terms and caused her to consider
   whether outsiders might find value in them". Harriet Beecher Stowe
   wrote about a woman a slave owner bought to breed children to sell.^[1]
   The expectations of children who were either bought or born into
   slavery varied. Scholars noted, "age and physical capacity, as well as
   the degree of dependence, set the terms of children's integration into

   The duties that child slaves were responsible for performing are
   disputed amongst scholars. A few representations of the lives that
   slave children led portrayed them as, "virtually divorced from the
   plantation economy until they were old enough to be employed as field
   hands, thereby emphasizing the carefree nature of childhood for a part
   of the slave population that was temporarily spared forced labor".^[3]
   This view also stated that if children were asked to perform any duties
   at all, it was to perform light household chores, such as being
   "organized into 'trash gangs' and made to collect refuse about the
   estate".^[3] Opposing scholars argued that slave children had their
   youth stolen from them, and were forced to start performing adult
   duties at a very young age.^[3] Some say that children were forced to
   perform field labor duties as young as the age of six.^[3] It is argued
   that in some areas children were put to "regular work in the antebellum
   South" and it "was a time when slaves began to learn work routines, but
   also work discipline and related punishment".^[4]

   A degree of self-possession was present in some degree to adults, but
   "children retained the legal incapacities of dependence even after they
   had become productive members of households".^[2] It was reported by
   scholars that, "this distinctive status shaped children's standing
   within familial households and left them subject to forced
   apprenticeship, even after emancipation".^[2] There were slave owners
   who did not want child slaves or women who were pregnant for fear that
   the child would have "took up too much of her time".^[1]

   The conditions of slavery for pregnant women varied regionally. In most
   cases, women worked in the fields up until childbirth performing small
   tasks. "four weeks appears to have been the average confinement period,
   or 'lying-in period', for antebellum slave women following delivery in
   the South as a whole".^[4] Slaveholders in northern Virginia, however,
   usually only permitted an average lying-in period of about "two weeks
   before ordering new mothers back to work".^[3] The responsibility of
   raising and tending to the children then became the task of other
   children and older elderly slaves. In most institutions of slavery
   throughout the world, the children of slaves became the property of the
   owner. This created a constant supply of people to perform labor. This
   was the case with, for example, thralls and American slaves. In other
   cases, children were enslaved as if they were adults. Usually, the
   mother's status determined if the child was a slave, but some local
   laws varied the decision to the father. In many cultures, slaves could
   earn their freedom through hard work and buying their own
   freedom.^[citation needed]

Modern day[edit]

   Although the abolition of slavery in much of the world has greatly
   reduced child slavery, the problem lives on, especially in developing
   countries. According to the Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no
   longer any state which legally recognizes, or which will enforce, a
   claim by a person to a right of property over another, the abolition of
   slavery does not mean that it ceased to exist. There are millions of
   people throughout the world--mainly children--in conditions of virtual
   to slavery."^[5] It further notes that slavery, particularly child
   slavery, was on the rise in 2003. It points out that there are
   countless others in other forms of servitude (such as peonage, bonded
   labor and servile concubinage) which are not slavery in the narrow
   legal sense. Critics claim they are stretching the definition and
   practice of slavery beyond its original meaning and are actually
   referring to forms of unfree labour other than slavery.^[6]^[7] In
   1990, reports of slavery came out of Bahr al Ghazal, a Dinka region in
   southern Sudan. In 1995, Dinka mothers spoke about their abducted
   children. Roughly 20,000 slaves were reported in Sudan in 1999.^[8]
   "The handmade woolen carpet industry is extremely labor-intensive and
   one of the largest export earners for India, Pakistan, Nepal and
   Morocco." During the past 20 years,^[timeframe?] about 200,000 and
   300,000 children are involved, most of them in the carpet belt of Uttar
   Pradesh in central India.^[9] Many children in Asia are kidnapped or
   trapped in servitude, where they work in factories and workshops for no
   pay and receive constant beatings.^[5] Slaves have reappeared following
   the old slave trade routes in West Africa. "The children are kidnapped
   or purchased for $20-$70 each in poorer states, such as Benin and Togo,
   and sold into slavery in sex dens or as unpaid domestic servants for
   $350.00 each in wealthier oil-rich states, such as Nigeria and


   Main article: Trafficking of children

   Trafficking of children includes recruiting, harbouring, obtaining, and
   transporting children by use of force or fraud for the purpose of
   subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as commercial sexual
   exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labour, i.e.,
   enslavement. Some see human trafficking as the modern form of slavery.
   Human trafficking is the trade of human beings and their use by
   criminals to make money. The majority of trafficking victims are
   adults, predominantly made up of women forced into prostitution, but
   children make up many victims forced into prostitution.^[clarification

   In Ukraine, a survey conducted by the non-governmental organization
   (NGO) La Strada-Ukraine^[10] in 2001-2003, based on a sample of 106
   women being trafficked out of Ukraine found that 3% were under 18, and
   the US State Department reported in 2004 that incidents of minors being
   trafficked was increasing. In Thailand, NGOs have estimated that up to
   a third of prostitutes are children under 18, many trafficked from
   outside Thailand.^[11]

   The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child
   prostitution and child pornography estimates that about one million
   children in Asia alone are victims of the sex trade.^[12]

   Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Save the Children, World Vision
   and the British Red Cross have called for an immediate halt to
   adoptions of Haitian children not approved before the earthquake,
   warning that child traffickers could exploit the lack of regulation. An
   Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
   spokesman said that child enslavement and trafficking was "an existing
   problem and could easily emerge as a serious issue over the coming
   weeks and months".^[13]

Child soldiers[edit]

   Main article: Military use of children

   The United Nations defines child soldiers as "A child associated with
   an armed force or armed group refers to any person below 18 years of
   age who is, or who has been, recruited or used by an armed force or
   armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to children,
   boys and girls, used as fighters, cooks, porters, spies or for sexual
   purposes."^[14] In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to
   300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts.^[15] In 2012,
   this estimation rose to be around 300,000 in only twenty
   countries.^[16] Around 40% of child soldiers are believed to be girls,
   that have been taken and used as sex slaves and 'wives'.^[17]

Forced labor[edit]

   More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of
   child labor, often sent to cities by parents living in rural
   poverty^[18] such as in restaveks in Haiti.

See also[edit]

     * Andrew Forrest
     * Children's Care International or Aide Internationale Pour l'Enfance
     * Contemporary slavery
     * Military use of children
     * Walk Free Foundation


    1. ^ ^a ^b Stephenson, Mimosa (November 2011). "Stowe's Uncle Tom's
       Cabin: An Argument for Protection of the Family". Journal of the
       American Studies Association of Texas: 40.
    2. ^ ^a ^b ^c Jones, Catherine (February 2010). "Ties That Bind, Bonds
       That Break: Children in the Reorganization of Households in
       Postemancipation Virginia". Journal of Southern History: 74.
    3. ^ ^a ^b ^c ^d ^e Pargas, Damian (December 2011). "From the Cradle
       to the Fields: Slave Childcare and Childhood in the Antebellum
       South". Slavery & Abolition. 32 (4): 477-493.
       doi:10.1080/0144039X.2011.601618. S2CID 143877395.
    4. ^ ^a ^b Pargas, Damian Alan (December 2011). "From the Cradle to
       the Fields: Slave Childcare and Childhood in the Antebellum
       Plantation South". Slavery & Abolition.
       doi:10.1080/0144039X.2011.601618. S2CID 143877395.
    5. ^ ^a ^b ^c "Does Slavery Still Exist?". Anti-Slavery Society.
       Archived from the original on 2018-08-08. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
    6. ^ Pat Dolan, Nick Frost (2017). The Routledge Handbook of Global
       Child Welfare. Taylor & Francis. p. 170. ISBN 9781317374749.
    7. ^ Beyond Voluntarism: Human Rights and the Developing International
       Legal Obligations of Companies. ICHRP. 2002. p. 32.
       ISBN 9782940259199.
    8. ^ Miniter, Richard (July 1999). "The False Promise of Slave
       Redemption". The Atlantic.
    9. ^ "Child Labor in the Carpet Industry". Anti-Slavery Society. 3
       April 2007. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved
       21 November 2011.
   10. ^ "La Strada Ukraine". www.brama.com. Archived from the original on
       2010-09-04. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
   11. ^ "United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research
       Institute". Archived from the original on 2005-10-24.
   12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-13.
       Retrieved 2010-05-25.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as
       title (link)
   13. ^ Call for halt to Haiti adoptions over traffickers, The Times,
       January 23, 2010.
   14. ^ Tremblay, Stephanie. "Child Recruitment and Use". United Nations
       Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for
       Children and Armed Conflict | To promote and protect the rights of
       all children affected by armed conflict. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
   15. ^ Staff. Campaign Page: Child Soldiers, Human Rights
       Watch.^[verification needed]
   16. ^ "Ten facts about child soldiers that everyone should know". The
       Independent. 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
   17. ^ Theirworld (2020-04-03). "Child soldiers". Theirworld. Retrieved
   18. ^ "In Togo, a 10-Year-Old's Muted Cry: 'I Couldn't Take Any More'".
       Washington Post. Retrieved 27 May 2018.

External links[edit]

     * Anti-Slavery Society
     * BBC - Help for Gulf child camel jockeys
     * NY Times - Robot Jockeys
     * BBC - Child camel jockeys find hope
     * Ansar Burney Trust - brought world attention to the plight of child
       camel jockeys and rescued hundreds of children from camel farms;
       operates shelter homes for trafficked victims; persuaded
       governments of Qatar and UAE to ban use of children as camel
       jockeys in 2005.
     * Sport of Sheikhs - Emmy and duPont award-winning documentary on
       camel jockeys in the Middle East
     * Every Child Ministries--child slaves
     * Trafficking in Minors - United Nations Interregional Crime and
       Justice Research Institute
     * ECPAT international
     * 'Tracking Africa's child trafficking - BBC
     * 'Child traffic victims 'failed'- BBC
     * Fears of rising child sex trade - The Guardian

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