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Volkswagen emissions scandal

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   2010s diesel emissions scandal involving Volkswagen
   "Dieselgate" and "Emissionsgate" redirect here. For other diesel
   emissions scandals, see Diesel emissions scandal.

   CAPTION: Volkswagen emissions scandal

   VW Golf TDI Clean Diesel WAS 2010 8983.JPG
   A 2010 Volkswagen Golf TDI with defeat device displaying "Clean Diesel"
   at the Detroit Auto Show
   Date 2008-2015
   Location Worldwide
   Also known as Dieselgate, Emissionsgate
   Type Emission standard violations
   Cause Engaging full emissions control only during testing
   Participants International Council on Clean Transportation, West
   Virginia University, Volkswagen Group, US EPA, other regulators
   Outcome Fines and lawsuits
   Footage vwdieselinfo.com

   CAPTION: Timeline

   1999 New US Tier 2 rules established to replace Tier 1.
   NO[x] limit decreasing from 1.0 g/mi to 0.07 g/mi
   2004-2009 Phase in period of diesel emissions rules
   2007 Volkswagen suspends sales of current diesel lines awaiting
   technology to meet new standards. Bosch allegedly warns Volkswagen not
   to use its software illegally^[1]^[2]
   2008 Volkswagen announces new Clean Diesel cars. Some cars are
   described in Europe as "EU4 emissions standard (EU5 compliant)".^[3]
   Cars with the test-rigging software are sold in the UK.^[4]
   2009 US Tier 2 fully in effect,
   Volkswagen TDI cars go on sale in US. In Europe, some models are now
   being described as Euro emission class 5, a change from class 4 in
   2009-2015 Volkswagen diesel sales in the US rebound, Clean Diesels win
   several environmental awards, receive tax breaks
   2014 International Council on Clean Transportation asks WVU CAFEE to
   help demonstrate the benefits of US diesel technology, hoping to have
   Europe follow suit
   May 2014 Instead, CAFEE finds discrepancies showing poor on-road
   emissions. Results presented at public forum and published, getting
   attention of EPA
   2014-2015 EPA repeats tests, and contacts Volkswagen for explanation of
   poor real world
   NO[x] emissions

   Dec 2014 Volkswagen orders voluntary recall of TDI cars but CARB and
   EPA not satisfied
   3 September 2015 EPA threatens to not certify 2016 diesels, Volkswagen
   responds by admitting software was programmed to cheat testing
   18 September 2015 Public announcement by EPA of order to recall
   2009-2015 cars
   20 September 2015 Volkswagen admits deception, issues public apology
   21 September 2015 First business day after news, Volkswagen stock down
   20 percent
   22 September 2015 Volkswagen to spend $7.3B to cover costs of scandal;
   stock declines another 17 percent
   23 September 2015 CEO Martin Winterkorn resigns
   29 September 2015 Volkswagen announces plans to refit up to 11 million
   vehicles affected by the emissions violations scandal
   2 October 2015 Volkswagen sets up an online based service on which
   customers can check if their car is affected based on the vehicle
   identification number
   8 October 2015 Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn testifies before US
   3 November 2015 Volkswagen's investigation finds that CO[2] emissions
   and fuel consumption figures are also affected by "irregularities".^[6]
   25 November 2015 The German Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA)
   approves Volkswagen fixes for 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 diesel engines in
   9 December 2015 Volkswagen revises previous estimates on CO[2]
   emissions irregularities, saying that only around 36,000 vehicles are
   9 March 2016 Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn resigns, citing a "mutual
   agreement" with the company.^[10]
   21 April 2016 Volkswagen announces that it will offer its US customers
   "substantial compensation" and car buyback offers for nearly 500,000
   2.0-litre vehicles.^[11]
   6 Nov 2016 Regulators in California discover that Audi engines were
   rigged to produce lower CO[2].^[12]
   11 January 2017 Volkswagen agrees to plead guilty to the emissions
   scandal and to pay $4.3 billion in penalties. Six Volkswagen executives
   are charged.^[13]^[14]
   3 May 2018 Ex-CEO Winterkorn is indicted on fraud and conspiracy
   charges in the US^[15]
   18 June 2018 In connection with the case, Audi CEO Rupert Stadler is
   arrested in Germany.^[16]
   16 October 2018 Audi agrees to a fine of EUR800 million in Germany to
   resolve civil claims over duty to oversight (Verletzung der
   Aufsichtspflicht in Unternehmen)^[17]
   14 March 2019 US SEC alleges that Volkswagen AG, Martin Winterkorn, et
   al. defrauded investors and files suit in N.D. Cal.^[18]
   15 April 2019 Winterkorn and four other executives are charged by
   prosecutors in Braunschweig, Germany.^[19]
   31 July 2019 Stadler and three others are charged by prosecutors in
   Munich, Germany.^[20]
   24 September 2019 Poetsch, Diess, and Winterkorn are charged with stock
   market manipulation by prosecutors in Germany.^[21]
   14 January 2020 Six additional individuals are charged by prosecutors
   in Braunschweig, Germany.^[22]

   The Volkswagen emissions scandal, sometimes known as
   Dieselgate^[23]^[24] or Emissionsgate,^[25]^[24] began in September
   2015, when the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
   issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act to German automaker
   Volkswagen Group.^[26] The agency had found that Volkswagen had
   intentionally programmed turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel
   engines to activate their emissions controls only during laboratory
   emissions testing, which caused the vehicles'
   NO[x] output to meet US standards during regulatory testing. However,
   the vehicles emitted up to 40 times more NO[x] in real-world
   driving.^[27] Volkswagen deployed this software in about 11 million
   cars worldwide, including 500,000 in the United States, in model years
   2009 through 2015.^[28]^[29]^[30]^[31]

   [ ]


     * 1 Background
          + 1.1 Introduction
          + 1.2 Volkswagen Diesel anti-pollution system
          + 1.3 Underlying U.S. and EU emission standards
          + 1.4 Early warnings 1998-
          + 1.5 European discrepancies, 2014
          + 1.6 Emission testing, US 2014
          + 1.7 EPA Notice of Violation, 2015
          + 1.8 Intelligence agencies, 2015
     * 2 Volkswagen's response
          + 2.1 Initial response August, September 2015
          + 2.2 Other irregularities, November 2015
               o 2.2.1 CO[2] emissions
               o 2.2.2 3.0 litre TDI emissions
          + 2.3 Affected Volkswagen and Audi TDI models
          + 2.4 Vehicle recall and consequences
          + 2.5 Advertising, 2015
          + 2.6 New orders, September 2015
          + 2.7 US Congressional Testimony, October 2015
          + 2.8 Compensation, November 2015
          + 2.9 European actions, 2015-2020
     * 3 Consequences
          + 3.1 Health consequences
               o 3.1.1 Deaths
               o 3.1.2 Non-fatal health impacts
          + 3.2 Environmental consequences
          + 3.3 Legal and financial repercussions
               o 3.3.1 Government actions
                    # Australia
                    # Belgium
                    # Brazil
                    # Canada
                    # China
                    # European Union
                    # France
                    # Germany
                    # Hong Kong
                    # India
                    # Italy
                    # Japan
                    # Netherlands
                    # Norway
                    # Romania
                    # South Africa
                    # South Korea
                    # Spain
                    # Sweden
                    # Switzerland
                    # United Kingdom
                    # United States
                         @ Charges against Volkswagen
                         @ Settlement
                         @ Securities and Exchange Commission
               o 3.3.2 Private actions
          + 3.4 European Investment Bank's possible involvement
          + 3.5 Models affected
               o 3.5.1 Resale value
          + 3.6 Effects on Volkswagen corporate
               o 3.6.1 Stock value
               o 3.6.2 Sales
          + 3.7 Transgressions by other manufacturers
          + 3.8 Industry consequences
          + 3.9 Secondary market consequences
     * 4 Other manufacturers
     * 5 Monkeygate
     * 6 Reactions
          + 6.1 Political figures
          + 6.2 Automotive industry and other commentators
          + 6.3 Media
          + 6.4 Public polling
     * 7 See also
     * 8 Notes
     * 9 Further reading
     * 10 External links



   In 2014, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) commissioned from
   the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) a study on
   emissions discrepancies between European and US models of vehicles,
   summing up the data on 15 vehicles from three sources. Among those
   recruited to this task was a group of five scientists at the West
   Virginia University Center for Alternative Fuels Engines and Emissions
   (CAFEE), who used a Japanese on-board emission testing system and
   detected additional emissions during live road tests on two out of
   three diesel cars.^[32]^[33] ICCT also purchased data from two other
   sources. The new road testing data and the purchased data were
   generated using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) developed
   by multiple individuals in the mid-late 1990s and published in May

   Regulators in multiple countries began to investigate Volkswagen,^[37]
   and its stock price fell in value by a third in the days immediately
   after the news. Volkswagen Group CEO Martin Winterkorn resigned, and
   the head of brand development Heinz-Jakob Neusser, Audi research and
   development head Ulrich Hackenberg, and Porsche research and
   development head Wolfgang Hatz were suspended. Volkswagen announced
   plans in April 2016 to spend EUR16.2 billion (US$18.32 billion at April
   2016 exchange rates)^[38] on rectifying the emissions issues, and
   planned to refit the affected vehicles as part of a recall campaign. In
   January 2017, Volkswagen pleaded guilty to criminal charges and signed
   an agreed Statement of Facts, which drew on the results of an
   investigation Volkswagen had itself commissioned from US lawyers Jones
   Day. The statement set out how engineers had developed the defeat
   devices, because diesel models could not pass US emissions tests
   without them, and deliberately sought to conceal their use.^[39] In
   April 2017, a US federal judge ordered Volkswagen to pay a $2.8 billion
   criminal fine for "rigging diesel-powered vehicles to cheat on
   government emissions tests". The "unprecedented" plea deal formalized
   the punishment which Volkswagen had agreed to.^[40] Winterkorn was
   charged in the United States with fraud and conspiracy on 3 May
   2018.^[15] As of 1 June 2020^[update], the scandal had cost VW $33.3
   billion in fines, penalties, financial settlements and buyback
   costs.^[41] Various government and civil actions are currently
   undergoing in the U.S., as well as the European Union, where most of
   the affected vehicles are located; while they remain legal to drive
   there, consumers groups and governments seek to make sure Volkswagen
   has compensated these owners appropriately as they had to do in the
   United States.

   The scandal raised awareness over the higher levels of pollution
   emitted by all diesel-powered vehicles from a wide range of car makers,
   which under real-world driving conditions exceeded legal emission
   limits. A study conducted by ICCT and ADAC showed the biggest
   deviations from Volvo, Renault, Jeep, Hyundai, Citroen and
   Fiat,^[42]^[43]^[44] resulting in investigations opening into other
   diesel emissions scandals. A discussion was sparked on the topic of
   software-controlled machinery being generally prone to cheating, and a
   way out would be to open source the software for public

  Volkswagen Diesel anti-pollution system[edit]

   In general, three-way catalytic converter technology, which has been
   very effective at reducing nitrogen oxide (
   NO[x]) in petrol engine exhaust, does not work well for diesel
   vehicles, which emit 20 times more NO[x] unless somehow treated.^[48]

   To deal with this fact, in 2005 Volkswagen licensed Mercedes'
   urea-based "selective catalytic reduction (SCR)" system called BlueTec
   for future diesel engine development.^[49]^[48] While effective at
   NO[x], an SCR system like Bluetec was expensive, high-maintenance and
   required more space than other methods, making it unsuitable for
   Volkswagen's compact cars such as Golf or Jetta.^[50]^[48] Some
   managers at Volkswagen rejected BlueTec, and preferred to develop their
   own inexpensive "lean NO[x] trap" system.^[48]^[51]^[52]^[49] In 2007,
   Volkswagen canceled the licensing deal for BlueTec and announced that
   it would use its own pollution control technology.^[49]^[52]

   Volkswagen chose the "lean
   NO[x] trap" system for its turbo-diesel Golf and Jetta models, but the
   solution did not work well as it required a fuel-rich exhaust gas in
   the purification process and fuel economy suffered as a result.^[48]
   Nonetheless, the company promoted the technological miracle of fast,
   cheap, and green diesel vehicles - but the impression projected to
   outsiders did not reflect the reality.^[48]^[53] In reality, the system
   failed to combine lower fuel consumption with compliant NO[x]
   emissions, and Volkswagen chose around 2006^[54] to program the Engine
   Control Unit (ECU) to switch from lower fuel consumption and high NO[x]
   emissions to low-emission compliant mode when it detected an emissions
   test, particularly for the EA 189 engine.^[48] This caused the engine
   to emit NO[x] levels above limits in daily operation, but comply with
   US NO[x] standards when being tested, constituting a defeat
   device.^[52]^[55] In 2015 the news magazine Der Spiegel reported that
   at least 30 people at management level in Volkswagen knew about the
   deceit for years, which Volkswagen denied in 2015.^[56]

   Starting in the 2009 model year, Volkswagen Group began migrating its
   light-duty passenger vehicle's turbocharged direct injection (TDI)
   diesel engines to a common-rail fuel injection system. This system
   allows for higher-precision fuel delivery using electronically
   controlled fuel injectors and higher injection pressure, theoretically
   leading to better fuel atomization, better air/fuel ratio control, and
   by extension, better control of emissions.^[57]^[58]^[3]^[4]^[59]

   Volkswagen described the diesel engines as being as clean as or cleaner
   than US and Californian requirements, while providing good fuel economy
   and performance.^[60]^[61] Due to the good fuel economy provided by its
   diesel fleet, in 2014 Volkswagen was registered with an impressive
   Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) of 34 mpg[-US] (6.9 L/100 km;
   41 mpg[-imp]).^[62] The low emissions levels of Volkswagen vehicles
   tested with the defeat device in operation enabled the company to
   receive green car subsidies and tax exemptions in the US.^[63]
     * The 2009 Volkswagen Jetta Diesel Sedan was awarded Green Car of the
       Year. The award was rescinded in early October 2015.
       The 2009 Volkswagen Jetta Diesel Sedan was awarded Green Car of the
       Year. The award was rescinded in early October 2015.
     * Volkswagen TDITruthandDare.com Clean Diesel
       campaign[64][65][66][67] advertised on the Volkswagen Golf TDI at
       the 2010 Washington Auto Show. (2009-4, 2009-7, 2010)
       Volkswagen TDITruthandDare.com Clean Diesel
       campaign^[64]^[65]^[66]^[67] advertised on the Volkswagen Golf TDI
       at the 2010 Washington Auto Show. (2009-4, 2009-7, 2010)
     * Volkswagen Research and Development building in Wolfsburg
       Volkswagen Research and Development building in Wolfsburg
     * Graphic about selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system that uses
       Urea based Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) known as BlueTec technology
       Graphic about selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system that uses
       Urea based Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) known as BlueTec technology

  Underlying U.S. and EU emission standards[edit]

   Comparison of NOx_and_PM_emission_standards_in_the_US_and_Europe

   The Volkswagen and Audi cars identified as violators had been certified
   to meet either the US EPA Tier 2 / Bin 5 emissions standard or the
   California LEV-II ULEV standard.^[68] Either standard requires that
   nitrogen oxide emissions not exceed 0.043 grams per kilometre
   (0.07 g/mi) for engines at full useful life which is defined as either
   190,000 kilometres (120,000 mi) or 240,000 kilometres (150,000 mi)
   depending on the vehicle and optional certification choices.^[69]^[70]

   This standard for nitrogen oxide emissions is among the most stringent
   in the world. For comparison, the contemporary European standards known
   as Euro 5 (2008 "EU5 compliant",^[3] 2009^[5]-2014 models) and Euro 6
   (2015 models) only limit nitrogen oxide emissions to 0.18 grams per
   kilometre (0.29 g/mi) and 0.08 grams per kilometre (0.13 g/mi)
   respectively.^[70]^[71] Defeat devices are forbidden in the EU.^[72]
   The use of a defeat device is subject to a penalty.^[71]

  Early warnings 1998-[edit]

   In 1998, a Swedish researcher criticized the New European Driving Cycle
   standard for allowing large emission differences between test and
   reality.^[73] The Washington Post also reported that in the late 1990s,
   EPA engineers at Virginia Testing Laboratory had built a system called
   ROVER, designed to test a car's emissions on the road. The project was
   shut down in 2001, despite preliminary tests indicating gaps between
   emissions from lab tests and real world tests of about 10 to 20

   In 2011, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre published a
   report which found that all tested diesel vehicles emitted 0.93 +- 0.39
   g/km^[clarification needed]and that the tested Euro 5 diesel vehicles
   emitted 0.62 +- 0.19 g/km, which substantially exceeded the respective
   Euro 3-5 emission limit.^[75] In 2013, the research center then warned:

     Sensors and electronic components in modern light-duty vehicles are
     capable of 'detecting' the start of an emissions test in the
     laboratory (e.g., based on acceleration sensors or
     not-driven/not-rotating wheels). Some vehicle functions may only be
     operational in the laboratory, if a predefined test mode is
     activated. Detecting emissions tests is problematic from the
     perspective of emissions legislation, because it may enable the use
     of defeat devices that activate, modulate, delay, or deactivate
     emissions control systems with the purpose of either enhancing the
     effectiveness of these systems during emissions testing or reducing
     the effectiveness of these systems under normal vehicle operation
     and use. While the use of defeat devices is generally prohibited,
     exceptions exist in cases where it is necessary to protect the
     engine against damage and to ensure safe vehicle operation (EC,
     2007). These exceptions leave room for interpretation and provide
     scope, together with the currently applied test procedure, for
     tailoring the emissions performance [...].^[76]

   The European Commission and European governments could not agree upon
   who was responsible for taking action.^[77] In the United Kingdom, the
   Department for Transport received a report from the International
   Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) in October 2014, which stated
   there was a "real world nitrogen oxides compliance issue" with diesel
   passenger cars.^[78] The UK's DEFRA research indicated a significant
   reduction in
   NO[x] and particulate matter from 1983 to 2014. Respirable suspended
   particles with a diameter of 10 micrometres - also known as PM[10]
   (including diesel particulates) - halved since 1996 despite the
   increased number and size of diesel cars in the UK.^[79]

  European discrepancies, 2014[edit]

   The independent body International Council on Clean Transportation
   (ICCT) commissioned a study in 2014 and obtained data on 15 vehicles
   from three sources. John German, co-lead of the US branch of ICCT, said
   the idea for the "very ordinary" test came from Peter Mock, managing
   director ICCT in Europe. Mr. German said they chose to put US vehicles
   through on-the-road tests because their emissions regulations are more
   stringent than those in the European Union. The ICCT expected the cars
   to pass, and thought they would be able to use the results to
   demonstrate to Europeans that it was possible to run diesel cars with
   cleaner emissions. The study found emissions discrepancies in the
   diesel VW Passat and VW Jetta, and no discrepancies in a BMW X5. They
   wanted to test a Mercedes as well, but could not obtain

  Emission testing, US 2014[edit]

   A group of scientists at West Virginia University submitted a proposal
   to ICCT, and John German awarded them a US$50,000 grant for a study to
   conduct tests on three diesel cars: a Volkswagen Passat, a Volkswagen
   Jetta, and a BMW X5.^[34]^[82]^[83]^[80] ICCT also purchased data from
   Emissions Analytics, a UK-based emissions consultancy, and from
   stakeholders in the Real Driving Emissions - Light Duty Vehicle working
   group in charge of amending Euro 6 regulations.^[34] In early 2014, two
   professors and two students began testing emissions from the three
   vehicles under road conditions, using a portable emissions measurement
   system, making it possible to collect real world driving emissions
   data, for comparison with laboratory dynamometer testing.^[36]

   The three vehicles were all certified at a California Air Resources
   Board facility before the tests^[36] as falling below the emissions
   limits when using the standard laboratory testing protocols.^[35]^[84]
   They put 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) on the Jetta and X5. For their
   final test, they wanted to put even more mileage on the Passat and
   drove it from Los Angeles to Seattle and back again, virtually the
   entire West Coast of the United States,^[80] over 3,200 kilometres
   (2,000 mi).^[36] The BMW was "at or below the standard ... with
   exception of rural-up/downhill driving conditions".^[35] But the
   researchers found that under real-world driving conditions the Jetta
   exceeded US emissions limits "by a factor of 15 to 35" while the Passat
   exceeded the limit "by a factor of 5 to 20".^[35]^[83]

   The emissions far exceeded legal limits set by both European and US
   standards. One of the testers said, "... we did so much testing that we
   couldn't repeatedly be doing the same mistake again and
   again."^[85]^[86] John German said the deceit required more effort than
   merely adding some code to the engine software, as the code would also
   have to be validated.^[85] The US test results confirmed the ICCT's
   findings in Europe.^[35] The West Virginia scientists did not identify
   the defeat device, but they reported their findings in a study they
   presented to the EPA and CARB in May 2014.^[87]^[88] In May 2014
   Colorado's RapidScreen real-world emissions test data reinforced the
   suspected abnormally high emissions levels.^[89] After a year-long
   investigation, an international team of investigators identified the
   defeat device as a piece of code labelled "acoustic condition" which
   activated emissions-curbing systems when the car's computer identified
   it was undergoing a test.^[90]


   NO[x] numbers for Volkswagen Passat and Jetta^[35] See note
   Car EPA (United States) Euro5 Euro6 Comment
   Limit Dyno WVU
   measurement Limit Register Measurement
   2011 Limit Register Measurement
   Vehicle A

   Volkswagen Jetta^[82]
   0.043 g/km 0.022 g/km 0.61-1.5 g/km 0.18 g/km^[71] 0.62 +- 0.19
   g/km^[75] 0.08 g/km^[71] lean-

   NO[x] trap (LNT) (Vehicle A)
   Vehicle B

   Volkswagen Passat^[82]
   0.043 g/km 0.016 g/km 0.34-0.67 g/km 0.62 +- 0.19 g/km urea-based
   selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system (Vehicle B)
     * Note: The vehicles tested were anonymous in the original study.
       Emissions listed on page 64-65. Limits listed on page 5.

   NO[x] treatment listed on page 9.

   VW NOx emissions WVU

   20 percent of European city dwellers are exposed to unhealthy levels of
   nitrogen dioxide. In London, where diesel road traffic is responsible
   for 40 percent of
   NO[x] emissions, 3,000 deaths per year can be attributed to air
   pollution.^[91] A Channel 4 documentary in January 2015 referred to the
   UK government moving to a CO[2] emission band system for road tax,
   which favoured diesel power, as the "great car con", with Barry
   Gardiner MP, former member of the Blair government, stating that the
   policy, which lowered CO[2] emissions yet increased NO[x] pollution,
   was a mistake.^[92]

  EPA Notice of Violation, 2015[edit]

   On 18 September 2015, the US EPA served a Notice of Violation (NOV) of
   the Clean Air Act on Volkswagen Group alleging that Volkswagen and Audi
   automobiles equipped with 2-litre TDI diesel engines, and sold in the
   US between 2009 and 2015, had an emissions-compliance "defeat device"
   installed, and ordered a recall of 482,000
   vehicles.^[93]^[94]^[95]^[96] A Notice of Violation is a notification
   to the recipient that the EPA believes it has committed violations and
   is not a final determination of liability.^[97]^[98]

   Volkswagen's "defeat device" is specially-written
   engine-management-unit firmware that detects "the position of the
   steering wheel, vehicle speed, the duration of the engine's operation,
   and barometric pressure"^[99] when positioned on a dynamometer using
   the FTP-75 test schedule.^[100] These criteria very closely match the
   EPA's required emissions testing protocol^[99] which allowed the
   vehicle to comply with emissions regulations by properly activating all
   emissions control during testing. The EPA's NOV alleged that under
   normal driving conditions, the software suppressed the emissions
   controls, allowing better fuel economy, at the expense of emitting up
   to 40 times more nitrogen oxides than allowed by law.^[93]^[101]

  Intelligence agencies, 2015[edit]

   In February 2017, Der Spiegel reported that in February 2015, ex
   Israeli diplomat Avi Primor had shown Ferdinand Piech, then Volkswagen
   chairman of the board at the time, a document in which US agencies
   warned CEO Martin Winterkorn early about the manipulation. During this
   meeting at the end of February 2015, Primor introduced Piech to his
   friend Yuval Diskin, who after retiring from directing the Israeli
   secret service of the Interior Shin Bet, had founded a cybersecurity
   company. Shin Bet apparently knew about the scandal early. Primor
   confirmed that the meeting took place, but both Primor and Diskin
   denied tipping off Piech. In early March 2017, Piech asked Winterkorn
   whether there had been a warning by US agencies, which Winterkorn

Volkswagen's response[edit]

  Initial response August, September 2015[edit]

   Former Volkswagen AG CEO Martin Winterkorn in March 2015

   According to the EPA, Volkswagen had insisted for a year before the
   outbreak of the scandal that discrepancies were mere technical
   glitches.^[106] Volkswagen fully acknowledged that they had manipulated
   the vehicle emission tests only after being confronted with evidence
   regarding the "defeat device".^[107]^[108]

   The first sign that Volkswagen was ready to come clean reportedly
   occurred on 21 August 2015 at a conference on green transportation in
   Pacific Grove, California, where an unnamed company representative
   approached Christopher Grundler, director of the EPA Office of
   Transportation and Air Quality, and surprised him by informally
   admitting that the company had been deceiving regulators.^[109] A CARB
   official was standing next to Grundler at the time.^[109]

   Formal acknowledgement of the deception was made by Volkswagen
   executives in Germany and the United States to EPA and California
   officials during a 3 September conference call, during which Volkswagen
   executives discussed written materials provided to the participants
   demonstrating how Volkswagen's diesel engine software circumvented US
   emissions tests. That admission came after the EPA threatened to
   withhold approval for the company's 2016 Volkswagen and Audi diesel

     I am shocked by the events of the past few days. I am stunned that
     misconduct on such a scale was possible in the Volkswagen Group. As
     CEO I accept responsibility for the irregularities. I am doing this
     in the interests of the company even though I am not aware of any
     wrongdoing on my part.

   Martin Winterkorn, -- Former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn
   resignation statement, 23 September 2015.^[111]

   Volkswagen's CEO Martin Winterkorn said: "I personally am deeply sorry
   that we have broken the trust of our customers and the public."
   Winterkorn was in charge at Volkswagen from the start of 2008 to
   September 2015.^[112] He attributed the admitted wrongdoing to "the
   terrible mistakes of a few people".^[113] Winterkorn initially resisted
   calls to step down from his leadership role at VW,^[114]^[115] but then
   resigned as CEO on 23 September 2015.^[116]^[117]^[118]

   Volkswagen Group of America CEO Michael Horn was more direct, saying,
   "We've totally screwed up."^[114] Horn added, "Our company was
   dishonest with the EPA, and the California Air Resources Board and with
   all of you."^[115] Olaf Lies, a Volkswagen board member and economy
   minister of Lower Saxony, later told the BBC that the people "who
   allowed this to happen, or who made the decision to install this
   software" acted criminally, and must be held personally accountable. He
   also said the board found out about the problems only "shortly before
   the media did", and expressed concerns over "why the board wasn't
   informed earlier about the problems when they were known about over a
   year ago in the United States".^[119]

   Volkswagen announced that 11 million cars were involved in the
   falsified emission reports, and that over seven billion dollars would
   be earmarked to deal with the costs of rectifying the software at the
   heart of the pollution statements.^[31] The newly appointed CEO of
   Volkswagen Mathias Mueller stated that the software was activated in
   only a part of those 11 million cars, which has yet to be
   determined.^[30] The German tabloid Bild claimed that top management
   had been aware of the software's use to manipulate exhaust settings as
   early as 2007. Bosch provided the software for testing purposes and
   warned Volkswagen that it would be illegal to use the software to avoid
   emissions compliance during normal driving.^[120] Der Spiegel followed
   Bild with an article dated 30 September 2015 to state that some groups
   of people were aware of this in 2005 or 2006.^[121] Sueddeutsche
   Zeitung had similarly reported, that Heinz-Jakob Neusser, one of
   Volkswagen's top executives, had ignored at least one engineer's
   warnings over "possibly illegal" practices in 2011.^[122]

   On 28 September 2015, it was reported that Volkswagen had suspended
   Heinz-Jakob Neusser, head of brand development at its core Volkswagen
   brand, Ulrich Hackenberg, the head of research and development at its
   brand Audi who oversees technical development across the Volkswagen
   group, and Wolfgang Hatz, research and development chief at its
   sports-car brand Porsche who also heads engine and transmissions
   development of the Volkswagen group.^[123] On the same day it was
   reported that besides the internal investigation of the incidents, the
   supervisory board of Volkswagen had hired American law firm Jones Day
   to carry out an independent investigation.^[124] Computerworld
   suggested that a software audit trail and test logs were ways to
   investigate what took place when.^[125] In February 2016 Volkswagen
   also contracted three public relations firms (Kekst in the United
   States, Hering Schuppener in Germany, Finsbury in Britain), in addition
   to its usual US-retained firm Edelman.^[126] To further help deal with
   the scandal, Volkswagen hired ex-FBI director Louis Freeh, alongside
   former German constitutional judge Christine Hohmann-Dennhardt
   previously employed by Daimler, and as of 2016 on Volkswagen's board as
   its director of integrity and legal affairs.^[127]

  Other irregularities, November 2015[edit]

    CO[2] emissions[edit]

   On 3 November 2015, Volkswagen revealed that its internal investigation
   found that CO[2] emissions and fuel consumption figures were also
   affected by "irregularities". These new issues, first estimated to cost
   up to EUR2 billion to repair, involved mainly diesel, but also some
   petrol models, with initial estimates suggesting that approximately
   800,000 vehicles equipped with 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 litre motors from VW,
   Skoda, Audi and SEAT might be affected.^[6] On 9 December 2015,
   Volkswagen revised these estimates, saying that only around 36,000
   vehicles are affected by the irregularities, while also affirming that
   it had found no evidence of unlawful changing of CO[2] emissions
   data.^[9] The news prompted a 7.3 percent increase in Volkswagen
   preference shares on the same day.^[9]^[128]

   In November 2016, California regulators claimed to have discovered
   software installed on some Audi models that allowed the manufacturer to
   cheat CO[2] emissions during standard testing, thereby also masking the
   cars' contribution to global warming.^[12]

    3.0 litre TDI emissions[edit]

   On 20 November 2015, the EPA said Volkswagen officials told the agency
   that all 3.0-litre TDI diesel engines sold in the US from 2009 through
   2015 were also fitted with emissions-cheating software, in the form of
   "alternate exhaust control devices". These are prohibited in the United
   States, however the software is legal in Europe.^[129] Volkswagen
   acknowledges these devices' existence, but maintains that they were not
   installed with a "forbidden purpose".^[128] On 4 January 2016, the US
   Department of Justice filed a complaint in a federal court against VW,
   alleging that the respective 3.0-litre diesel engines meet the legal
   emission requirements in only a "temperature conditioning" mode that is
   automatically switched on during testing conditions, while at "all
   other times, including during normal vehicle operation, the vehicles
   operate in a 'normal mode' that permits
   NO[x] emissions of up to nine times the federal standard".^[130] The
   complaint covers around 85,000 3.0 litre diesel vehicles sold in the
   United States since 2009, including the Volkswagen Touareg, Porsche
   Cayenne, Audi A6 Quattro, Audi A7 Quattro, Audi A8, Audi A8L, Audi Q5,
   and Audi Q7 models.^[130]

  Affected Volkswagen and Audi TDI models[edit]

   CAPTION: List of affected vehicles and generation of engine^[131]^[132]

     Brand          Model        Model Years Generation of Engine
   Audi       A1                 2010-2014   1
              A3                 2009-2013
   Volkswagen Beetle             2013-2014
              Beetle Convertible
              Golf 2-Door        2010-2013
              Golf 4-Door        2010-2014
              Jetta              2009-2014
              Jetta SportWagen
              Passat             2012-2015
   Audi       A3                 2015        3*
   Volkswagen Beetle
              Beetle Convertible
              Golf 4-Door
              Golf SportWagen
   Audi       A3                 2015        3**
   Volkswagen Beetle
              Beetle Convertible
              Golf 4-Door
              Golf SportWagen
              Touareg            2009-2012   3
   Audi       Q7                 2009-2015
   Volkswagen Touareg            2013-2016   3
   Audi       A6                 2014-2016
              Q7                 2013-2015

   *Initial Modification

   **Subsequent Modification

  Vehicle recall and consequences[edit]

   On 29 September 2015, Volkswagen announced plans to refit up to 11
   million affected vehicles, fitted with Volkswagen's EA 189 diesel
   engines, including 5 million at Volkswagen brand, 2.1 million at Audi,
   1.2 million at Skoda and 1.8 million light commercial vehicles. SEAT
   said that 700,000 of its diesel models were affected. In Europe alone,
   a total of 8 million vehicles are affected.^[133] In Germany, 2.8
   million vehicles will have to be recalled, followed by the UK, with 1.2
   million. In France, 984,064 vehicles were affected, in Austria around
   360,000, while in the Czech Republic 148,000 vehicles were involved (of
   which 101,000 were Skodas). In Portugal, Volkswagen said it had sold
   94,400 vehicles with the software.^[134]^[135] The repair may not
   require a formal recall; in the UK, for example, the company will
   simply offer to repair the cars free of charge; a recall is required
   only "when a defect is identified that... could result in serious
   injury". As the rules violation involved enabling emission controls
   during testing, but turning it off under normal conditions to improve
   performance or fuel mileage, it has been speculated that the software
   update might make cars perform less efficiently and impair fuel
   economy; according to VW, however, its proposed solutions will be
   designed to achieve legal EU emissions compliance without impairing
   engine performance or consumption.^[136]

   As of September 2015^[update] it was unclear whether the repair would
   include hardware modifications, such as selective catalytic reduction
   (SCR) upgrades.^[137]^[138] The recall was scheduled to start in
   January 2016, with all affected cars projected to be fixed by the end
   of the year. The company also announced a review of all of its brands
   and models, including its supercar marque Bugatti.^[139]

   On 8 October 2015, Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn said in testimony
   before the US Congress that it could take years to repair all the cars,
   especially the older models, due to the required complex hardware and
   software changes. He said that the fixes would likely preserve fuel
   economy ratings but, "there might be a slight impact on

   On 12 October 2015, Paul Willis, Volkswagen UK managing director, told
   the Commons Transport Select Committee that about 400,000 Volkswagen
   cars in the UK will need fuel injectors altered as well as a software
   fix.^[59] The vehicles requiring the hardware fix are the 1.6 litre
   diesel models. The 1.2 litre^[142] and 2.0 litre diesel models will
   require only a software fix.^[59] On the same day, Volkswagen announced
   it would overhaul its entire diesel strategy, saying that in Europe and
   North America it will switch "as soon as possible" to the use of
   selective catalytic reduction technology to improve diesel emissions.
   It also announced plans to accelerate the development of electric cars
   and plug-in hybrids, as well as petrol, instead of diesel engines for
   smaller cars.^[143]

   On 12-13 October 2015, Volkswagen Group vehicle drivers in the UK
   started receiving notification letters, to "rectify the
   issue".^[144]^[145] Volkswagen later announced a timeline for UK diesel
   recalls, citing March 2016 for 2.0-litre engines, June 2016 for
   1.2-litre engines, and October 2016 for 1.6-litre engines.^[146]

   At the beginning of October 2015, Volkswagen suggested to let car
   owners decide whether their cars would be recalled for
   handling.^[147]^[148] However, the German Federal Motor Transport
   Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt, or KBA)^[149] views the software as
   illegal,^[150]^[151] and has ordered a full recall of all affected cars
   in Germany. Volkswagen then decided to recall around 8.5 million cars
   in Europe,^[148] about a third of all its car deliveries since
   2009.^[152] KBA requires Volkswagen to send a recall plan to KBA before
   the end of October for 2.0-litre cars, and end of November for 1.2 and
   1.6-litre cars.^[151] If KBA approves a plan, Volkswagen can then start
   handling the cars. The German authorities require that Volkswagen
   remove the software and that Volkswagen ensures that emission rules are
   fulfilled.^[147] Media estimates that the KBA procedure sets a
   precedent for how authorities in other countries handle the

   On 18 November 2015, Autoblog reported that the KBA was reviewing a
   Volkswagen fix for the affected 1.6 diesel engine.^[153] On 25 November
   2015, Volkswagen said the fix involved a minor hardware modification to
   the car's air intake system, alongside a software update.^[154] This
   low-cost solution contradicted earlier speculation regarding the
   possible fitting of new injection nozzles and catalytic
   converters.^[153] In December 2015, Volkswagen said that the affected
   1.2-litre and 2.0-litre diesel engines needed only a software
   update.^[155]^[156] As of November 2015, the KBA had approved the fixes
   with the first recalls likely to begin in January 2016.^[8] According
   to VW, the measures aimed to achieve legal EU emissions compliance
   without impairing engine output, fuel consumption, or
   performance.^[136] The simple fixes with inexpensive parts and software
   were then possible though not available when the engines were
   developed, because engine technology understanding and intake flow
   simulation capabilities had matured in the meantime, to address the
   burning of diesel and air mixtures via intake flow shaping.^[157] As of
   December 2015, due to stricter environmental legislation, fixes for US
   vehicles were expected to take longer to produce and be more
   technically complex.^[136]

   As of February 2016, there were three sizes of affected diesel engines,
   and more than a dozen variations to the repairs exist, prompting
   Volkswagen to roll out the recalls in waves for each cluster of
   vehicle; the first model to be repaired was the low-volume Volkswagen
   Amarok.^[158] Classified as a light commercial vehicle, the Amarok
   pickup has a higher Euro 5
   NO[x] emissions limit than the passenger cars that are yet to have an
   available approved fix. German motoring journal Auto Motor und Sport
   tested two Amarok TDI pickups pre and post software update and found
   that whilst engine power had remained the same, fuel consumption had
   increased by 0.5 litres/100 km.^[159] This is believed in turn to have
   delayed the next wave of updates to the larger volume Passat model
   which had been expected to start on 29 February 2016 due to the further
   testing of the update by the KBA.^[160] Volkswagen confirmed on 11
   April 2016 that the Passat recall would be delayed as testing had
   revealed higher fuel consumption.^[161] In 2017 Swedish auto journal
   Teknikens Vaerld performed tests on 10 different models and most of
   them showed a reduction in power output and increase in fuel
   consumption after having the update applied.^[162]

  Advertising, 2015[edit]

   In France, the MediaCom media agency, which buys advertising for
   Volkswagen, warned the French newspapers on 22 September 2015 that it
   would cancel planned Volkswagen and Audi campaigns in case they would
   cover the emission violations.^[163] Given the scale that the scandal
   had already taken by that time, the threat had little effect on its
   coverage.^[citation needed]

   On the occasion of German Unity Day, Volkswagen launched an ad campaign
   in German Sunday newspapers, that it wanted to express its joy about
   the 25th anniversary of German reunification, its pride about having
   shaped the country together with all people for the last 25 years, to
   give thanks for the confidence of the customers it had experienced
   during all this time and that it wanted to thank all its employees and
   trade partners in Germany, and that in one sentence, that "it would do
   everything to win back the confidence of its customers".^[164]

  New orders, September 2015[edit]

   In September 2015, Volkswagen's Belgian importer, D'Ieteren, announced
   that it would offer free engine upgrades to 800 customers who had
   ordered a vehicle with a diesel engine which was likely to have been
   fitted with illegal software.^[165]^[166]

   As of October 2015, Sales of vehicles with EA 189 engines were halted
   in some European countries, including Spain, Switzerland, Italy, the
   Netherlands, Belgium and the UK.^[165]^[167]

   In the United States, Volkswagen withdrew its application for emissions
   certification for its 2016 diesel models, leaving thousands of vehicles
   stranded at ports in October 2015, which the company said contained
   software which should have been disclosed to and certified by the
   EPA.^[168] EPA quarantined some 2016-models until it would become clear
   that their catalysts perform the same on the road as they do in

  US Congressional Testimony, October 2015[edit]

                            External video
   video icon Emissions Investigation Hearing, C-SPAN, 8 October 2015

   On 8 October 2015, Volkswagen US CEO Michael Horn testified before the
   United States House Committee on Energy and Commerce stating: "This was
   not a corporate decision, from my point of view, and to my best
   knowledge today. This was a couple of software engineers who put this
   in for whatever reason... some people have made the wrong decisions in
   order to get away with something that will have to be found
   out."^[170]^[171] The response was widely ridiculed.^[172]^[173]

  Compensation, November 2015[edit]

   On 9 November 2015, Volkswagen announced that, in addition to the
   US$2,000 it was offering current Volkswagen owners for trade-ins,
   482,000 diesel Audi and Volkswagen owners in the United States would be
   eligible to receive US$1,000 in vouchers.^[174] On 18 November 2015,
   Volkswagen said that approximately one quarter of the affected vehicle
   owners had applied to the program, which was estimated to cost at least
   $120 million in benefits.^[175] Volkswagen confirmed that it is
   offering vouchers including to customers in Canada.^[176] Volkswagen
   America said that accepting the gift cards does not prevent owners from
   filing lawsuits.^[177] Volkswagen also created a claims fund, managed
   by the well-known mediation attorney Kenneth Feinberg, which will offer
   full compensation packages (in the form of cash, buy-backs, repairs or
   replacement cars) to the approximately 600,000 United States owners
   affected by the scandal.^[178] Despite earlier hints to the contrary,
   in December 2015 Volkswagen CEO Matthias Mueller said that customers
   outside the US and Canada should also expect some type of compensation
   package: "we are working on an attractive package, let's call it
   compensation, for reduction in residual values in our
   cars".^[179]^[180] However, on 11 January 2016, a Volkswagen spokesman
   said "there won't be compensation. All the indications are that
   residual values are unaffected";^[181] the company, which continued to
   face pressure from E.U. officials to compensate European drivers as
   well,^[182] blamed the confusion on "a slight mistranslation".^[181]
   E.U. commissioner Elzbieta Bienkowska said Volkswagen was treating
   European consumers unfairly, and Volkswagen responded that the
   situation in US and Canadian markets, where confidence in diesel
   technology was "severely shaken" and clients needed to wait longer for
   an engine fix due to tougher emissions standards, was not
   "automatically comparable" with other markets.^[182]

   On 21 April 2016, the federal district court for the Northern District
   of California, which was appointed in December 2015 to oversee almost
   all of the US litigation, including claims filed by vehicle owners and
   state governments, announced that Volkswagen would offer its US
   customers "substantial compensation" and buy back nearly 500,000
   2.0-litre vehicles as part of a settlement in North America.^[11] The
   court appointed former FBI Director Robert Mueller as a mediator to
   oversee the negotiations between claimants, regulators, and Volkswagen,
   to produce a final "consent decree" by late June 2016.^[183]^[184]

  European actions, 2015-2020[edit]

   Following its admission and recall plans in the United States,
   Volkswagen also started to establish similar plans in the European
   Union, where it was estimated that 8.5 million of the 11 million diesel
   vehicles affected by the scandal were located. The European Union
   warned Volkswagen in 2018 that it did not believe it was moving fast
   enough to issue repairs on the recalled cars, provide consumers with
   appropriate information on what steps Volkswagen was doing to resolve
   the problem, and what compensation they were offering affected
   consumers.^[185] Volkswagen agreed to a EUR1 billion fine imposed by
   Germany for failing to monitor the employees that modified the software
   behind the scandal in 2018.^[186]

   In Germany, over 60,000 civil lawsuits of various degrees representing
   about 450,000 citizens were filed from 2015 through 2019 by Volkswagen
   owners, seeking similar compensation as Volkswagen had given to United
   States drivers. A case led by the Federation of German Consumer
   Organizations (VZBV) was brought against Volkswagen. At the
   Braunschweig Oberlandesgericht (Higher Regional Court) Volkswagen
   argued that where the United States had banned the affected cars, no EU
   member state had banned the affected vehicle, and thus there was no
   basis for any compensation. However, Judge Michael Neef rejected a
   summary judgement for Volkswagen in September 2019, allowing what was
   anticipated to be a multi-year case to go forward.^[187]^[188]
   Volkswagen had settled with VZBV for about EUR830 million - providing
   between EUR1,350 and EUR6,257 to approximately 260,000 Volkswagen
   owners through the VZBV - in February 2020.^[189] Many consumers were
   angered over this settlement, representing only a fraction of what
   Volkswagen had paid to United States' owners. One of the other civil
   cases, serving as a template for those not covered by the VZBV case,
   had reached the Federal Court of Justice, Germany's highest court, and
   in May 2020, ruled that the consumer was entitled to the full market
   value of the car, several times larger than what the settlement would
   have offered. It is unclear how much Volkswagen will own from a result
   of the remaining civil lawsuits.^[190]^[191]

   A similar class-action suit against Volkswagen representing more than
   91,000 owners is currently underway in the United Kingdom, seeking
   greater compensation for being sold vehicles known by Volkswagen to be
   defective. The High Court of Justice had giving preliminary findings in
   the case in April 2020 that there is a likelihood that Volkswagen did
   sell vehicles with a "defeat device" and attempted to abuse the
   process, allowing the trial to go forward.^[192]


   Distribution of estimated actual excess Volkswagen light duty diesel
   NO[x] emissions summed over 2008 through 2015 (kg per km^2).^[193] The
   median value of emissions is used for each year. Emission density peaks
   at 446 kg per km^2 ^[193]

   Annual excess Volkswagen light duty diesel vehicle
   NO[x] emissions in kilotonnes (million kg). Results from 2008 through
   2015 (blue) are estimates of actual excess emissions. Results from 2016
   onward (red) are forecast based on the existing in-use vehicle fleet
   assuming no new sales of non-compliant vehicles from September 2015 and
   no retrofitting (used to calculate the benefit of a return to
   compliance).^[193] The shaded region indicates the 95 percent
   confidence interval. The discontinuity is due to the difference in the
   baseline for past (based on FTP-75 drive cycle measurements) and future
   (based on a return to regulatory limit) emissions.^[193]

  Health consequences[edit]

   Further information: Diesel exhaust


   A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Research Letters
   estimated that approximately 59 premature deaths will be caused by the
   excess pollution produced between 2008 and 2015 by vehicles equipped
   with the defeat device in the United States, the majority due to
   particulate pollution (87 percent) with the remainder due to ozone (13
   percent). The study also found that making these vehicles emissions
   compliant by the end of 2016 would avert an additional 130 early

   Earlier non peer-reviewed studies published in media sources, quoted
   estimates ranging from 10 to 350 excess deaths in the United States
   related to the defeat devices based on varying assumptions.^[195]

   A 2022 study by economists found that each cheating Volkswagen car per
   1,000 cars caused a low birth weight rate increase of 1.9 percent and
   infant mortality rate increase by 1.7 percent.^[196]

    Non-fatal health impacts[edit]

   Since NO^
   [2] is a precursor to ground-level ozone it may cause respiratory
   problems "including asthma, bronchitis and
   emphysema".^[197]^[198]^[199] Nitrogen oxides amplify the effect of
   fine particulate matter soot which causes heart problems, a form of air
   pollution estimated to kill 50,000 in the United States annually.^[200]

   A peer-reviewed study published in Environmental Pollution estimated
   that the fraudulent emissions would be associated with 45 thousand
   disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and a value of life lost of at
   least 39 billion US dollars.^[201]

   In June 2016, Axel Friedrich, formerly with the German equivalent of
   the E.P.A. and a co-founder of the International Council on Clean
   Transportation stated "It's not just fraud - it's physical

  Environmental consequences[edit]

   NO[x] also contribute to acid rain, and visibly brown clouds or smog
   due to both the visible nature of NO^
   [2], and the ground level ozone created by NO. NO and NO^
   [2] are not greenhouse gases, whereas N^
   [2]O is.^[203] NO^
   [2] is a precursor to ground-level ozone.

  Legal and financial repercussions[edit]

    Government actions[edit]


   In October 2015, the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission
   announced that it will not be investigating Volkswagen for possible
   violations of emissions standards, citing that a reasonable consumer
   would not be concerned about the tailpipe emissions of their vehicle
   and hence would not be a deciding factor in their purchase.^[204] In
   March 2017, the Sydney Morning Herald reported that Audi and Volkswagen
   issued a voluntary recall for affected cars for software updates and in
   some cases hardware updates had begun in December 2016.^[205] As of
   January 2018^[update], several class action suits were dropped against
   Volkswagen, Audi and Skoda.^[206]

   In December 2019, Volkswagen was fined A$125,000,000 for making false
   and misleading representations about compliance with Australian diesel
   emissions standards.^[207]


   In October 2015, the Belgian Chamber of Representatives set up a
   special Dieselgate committee.^[208] It finalized a consensus report in
   March 2016, for the government to implement recommendations, with
   near-unanimous approval on 28 April 2016.^[209]

   In January 2016, public broadcaster VRT reported on Opel Zafira cars
   having lower emissions after an update compared to before receiving the
   update. Opel denied deploying software updates influencing emissions,
   and the Economic Inspection of the Federal Government started an
   investigation on the request of Minister of Consumer Protection Kris


   As of October 2015, Volkswagen Brazil confirmed that 17,057 units of
   its Amarok mid-size pickups produced between 2011 and 2012 and sold in
   Brazil were equipped with the emissions cheating software. The
   Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources
   (Ibama) launched an investigation, warning that Volkswagen could face
   fines up to R$50,000,000.^[211]

   In September 2017, Volkswagen Brazil was ordered to pay R$1,000,000,000
   to the 17,000 owners of the Amarok pickups equipped with defeat
   devices, as decided by the 1st Business Court of the Court of Justice
   of Rio de Janeiro. The automaker may still appeal the decision. The
   total amount reaches R$1,092,648,000 (US$348 million at the September
   2017 exchange rate) and each consumer will receive R$54,000 (US$17,000)
   for material damages and another R$10,000 (US$3,000) for moral damages.
   In addition, the magistrate ordered the automaker to pay an additional
   R$1,000,000 into the National Consumer Protection Fund. According to
   the judge, the purpose was "to compensate the Brazilian society as a
   collective moral damage of a pedagogical and punitive nature because of
   the collective fraud caused in the domestic motor vehicle


   In September 2015, Environment Canada announced that it had begun an
   investigation to determine if "defeat devices" were installed in
   Volkswagen vehicles to bypass emission control tests in Canada.^[213]
   On 15 December 2016 an agreement was reached^[214] which allowed
   buybacks or trade-ins based on market value on 18 September 2015 or
   fitting an approved emissions modification. All three options also
   added a cash payment between CA$5,100 and CA$8,000.^[215]

   Ontario provincial authorities executed a search warrant at Volkswagen
   Canada offices in the Toronto area on 19 September 2017^[216] as part
   of its investigation into the emissions scandal that rocked the company
   two years ago. The Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change have
   charged Volkswagen AG with one count under the province's Environmental
   Protection Act, alleging the German company did not comply with Ontario
   emission standards. The allegations have not been proven in

   In July 2018, Volkswagen Group Canada announced plans for its new
   Electrify Canada subsidiary to launch a network of public fast-charging
   stations in major cities and along major highways, starting with 32
   charging sites in the four most-populated provinces: Ontario, Quebec,
   British Columbia and Alberta.^[218]^[219]

   On 9 December 2019, Volkswagen AG was charged with 60 counts of
   contravening the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999.^[220] On
   22 January 2020, Volkswagen pleaded guilty to all charges and was fined
   CA$196.5 million.^[221]


   In October 2015, China's General Administration of Quality Supervision,
   Inspection and Quarantine announced the recall of 1,946 imported Tiguan
   SUVs and four imported Passat B6 sedans, in order to fix the emissions
   software problems.^[222]^[223]

      European Union[edit]

   In September 2015, Government regulatory agencies and investigators
   initiated proceedings in France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Spain,
   the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and Romania. Several
   countries^[vague] called for a Europe-wide
   investigation.^[224]^[225]^[226] In October 2015 Werner Hoyer,
   President of the European Investment Bank (EIB) said the bank was
   considering recalling Volkswagen loans, and announced their own
   investigation into the matter.^[227] On 27 October 2015, the European
   Parliament voted a resolution urging the bloc to establish a federal
   authority to oversee car-emissions, following reports in the press that
   top EU environmental officials had warned, since early 2013, that
   manufacturers are tweaking vehicles to perform better in the lab than
   on the road. The resolution urged for tougher emissions tests to be
   fully implemented in 2017, instead of being phased in between 2017 and
   2019, as had been originally planned.^[228] However, the European
   Commission proceeded with passing legislation that allowed the car
   industry an extra year before having to comply with the newer
   regulation. Also, it was revealed^[by whom?] that the new "realistic"
   EU driving emissions test will continue to allow cars to emit more than
   twice the legal limit of nitrogen oxides (
   NO[x]) from 2019 and up to 50 percent more from 2021.^[229] The
   legislation, opposed only by the Netherlands, is considered^[by whom?]
   a great victory for the car industry, and has drawn stern critique from
   other MEPs. Dutch MEP Bas Eickhout referred to the new test as "a
   sham",^[229] while liberal democrat MEP Catherine Bearder described the
   legislation as "a disgraceful stitch-up by national governments, who
   are once again putting the interests of carmakers ahead of public
   health".^[229] In December 2015, the EU Parliament voted to establish a
   special committee to investigate whether regulators and executive
   officials, including the European Commission, failed to oversee the car
   industry and its pollution testing regimes.^[230]

   In June 2016, documents leaked to the press indicated that in 2010,
   European Commission officials had been warned by their in-house science
   team that at least one car manufacturer was possibly using a
   NO[x]-related defeat device in order to bypass emission
   regulation.^[231] Kathleen Van Brempt, the chair of the EU inquiry into
   the scandal, found the documents "shocking" and suggested that they
   raised serious concerns with regard to the future of commission
   officials: "These documents show that there has been an astonishing
   collective blindness to the defeat device issue in the European
   commission, as well as in other EU institutions".^[231]

   In September 2020, European union laws changed and the European
   commission has the right to check car conformity to emission standards
   and to recall vehicles when needed. Fines can be up to EUR30,000 per


   Renault and Peugeot's headquarters were raided by fraud investigators
   in January and April 2016, respectively. As of January 2016, Renault
   recalled 15,000 cars for emission testing and fixing.^[233]^[234]^[235]
   French authorities opened an inquiry in March 2016^[236] into
   Volkswagen over the rigging of emission tests, with prosecutors
   investigating suspicions of "aggravated deception".^[167]


   In September 2015 former Volkswagen chief executive Martin Winterkorn
   resigned over the scandal, saying he had no knowledge of the
   manipulation of emissions results. One week later German prosecutors
   launched an investigation against him.^[237] On 1 October a German
   prosecutor clarified, it was looking into allegations of fraud from
   unidentified individuals, but that Winterkorn was not under formal
   investigation.^[238] On 8 October 2015 police raided Volkswagen
   headquarters.^[239] As of 16 October 2015, twenty investigators worked
   on the case, targeting "more than two, but a lot fewer than 10"
   Volkswagen staff.^[240] As of November 2015 the Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt
   KBA tested 50 cars from different manufacturers, both in laboratory and
   on-road with PEMS.^[241] In May 2016, German transport minister
   Alexander Dobrindt said that Volkswagen, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Opel and
   Porsche would all adjust settings that increased emission levels such
   as nitrogen dioxide in some diesel cars.^[242] On 16 March 2017, German
   authorities raided the headquarters of Audi in Bavaria and Volkswagen
   in Wolfsburg.^[243]

   On 15 April 2019 Winterkorn and four other executives were charged by
   prosecutors in Braunschweig, Germany.^[19] In August 2019, a district
   court ruled that updated software didn't properly address the
   emissions, citing a tested Tiguan turbodiesel engine that only reduced
   emissions in the ambient temperature range of 10-32 DEGC
   (50-90 DEGF).^[244]

   Audi's then CEO Rupert Stadler was taken into German custody in June
   2018 until being released in October 2018, when he was also removed
   from being CEO.^[245] In July 2019, Stadler was charged with fraud in
   Munich due to the scandal.^[246]

      Hong Kong[edit]

   The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department banned the Volkswagen
   Caddy on 16 October 2015.^[247] As of 16 October 2015 the department
   had also tested the Amarok and Transporter commercial diesel vehicles
   but found them to be free of the defeat device.^[248]


   As of 25 September 2015^[update], the Indian government directed the
   Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) to investigate whether
   Volkswagen's vehicles had circumvented Indian laws and regulations on
   vehicle emission testing.^[249]^[250] On 22 September 2015 the Indian
   Foundation of Transport, Research and Training (IFTRT) demanded a probe
   into Volkswagen's Confirmation of Production process for vehicles sold
   in India.^[251] In October the Government of India later extended its
   deadline for the test results to the end of October 2015.^[252] On 11
   January 2017, ARAI's investigation into defeat devices was published
   and revealed that Volkswagen India had installed a derivation of the
   software used in the U.S. to defeat emission testing procedures in all
   of the Volkswagen group's product range in India with EA 189 engine
   series. This included  1.2-L, 1.5-L, 1.6-L and 2.0-L diesel engine
   variants across three different brands - Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen.
   The report called the defeat device "not a product failure but a clear
   case of cheating".^[253]


   On 6 October 2015 Italy's regulator of competition announced plans to
   investigate whether Volkswagen engaged in "improper commercial
   practices" when promoting its affected diesel vehicles.^[254] On 15
   October 2015, Italian State Police raided Volkswagen offices in Verona,
   and Volkswagen's Lamborghini offices in Bologna, placing six executives
   under investigation.^[255]


   In October 2015, Japan's Ministry of the Environment held an expert
   committee meeting to discuss this issue. There were 36 targeted cars
   which had been privately imported, although they were not sold through
   authorized resellers in Japan.^[256]


   In December 2016 the Dutch consumers authority ACM decided to
   investigate whether Dutch laws were broken and consumers misled, a
   report was due by June 2017. 5,000 Dutch Volkswagen owners have signed
   up for a class action lawsuit.^[when?]^[257] Netherlands has spent
   billions of euros on subsidies in energy-efficient cars in the recent
   years.^[vague] Jesse Klaver from the political party GroenLinks
   responded^[when?] that the Netherlands must claim back money from the
   car manufacturers if it emerges that they have committed fraud in the


   Norway's prosecutors opened a criminal investigation into possible
   economic crimes committed by VW.^[259]

   In May 2016, Norway's sovereign wealth fund, the world's largest ($850
   bn) and also one of the company's biggest investors, announced legal
   action against Volkswagen, to be filed in Germany as part of a
   class-action lawsuit being prepared there.^[260]


   On 1 October 2015 the Romanian Automotive Register (RAR) stopped
   issuing registration documents for Volkswagen vehicles equipped with
   Euro 5 diesel engines.^[261]

      South Africa[edit]

   On 28 September 2015, the departments of Environmental Affairs and
   Transport and the National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications said
   they still needed to determine whether local cars had been affected by
   the rigging of US vehicle emissions tests.^[262]

      South Korea[edit]

   As of 19 January 2016 South Korea, the world's eighth-largest
   diesel-car market, planned a criminal case against Volkswagen
   executives.^[263] On 22 September 2015 South Korean authorities
   announced pollution control investigations into cars manufactured by
   Volkswagen and other European car-manufacturers. Park Pan-kyu, a deputy
   director at South Korea's environment ministry said: "If South Korean
   authorities find problems in the Volkswagen diesel cars, the probe
   could be expanded to all German diesel cars".^[264]

   In November 2015, after defeat devices had been found in some
   Volkswagen models, the Environment Minister issued a fine of
   W=14,100,000,000 and ordered the cars to be recalled.^[265] As of 20
   January 2016, the country's environmental agency had filed criminal
   charges against VW, seeking up to $48 billion in penalties. Johannes
   Thammer, managing director of Audi Volkswagen Korea, was placed under
   investigation and faced up to five years in prison and a fine of up to
   W=30,000,000.^[266] Volkswagen's recall plan for South Korea, submitted
   on 6 January 2016, was rejected by the authorities, as it failed to
   meet a number of key legal requirements.^[263] Authorities are also
   reported to have rejected a revised plan on 23 March 2016 for the same
   reasons.^[267] In May 2016, following a wider investigation of 20
   diesel-powered cars, South Korean authorities accused Nissan of using a
   defeat device for manipulating emissions data for the British-built
   Nissan Qashqai, allegations which the Japanese carmaker denied.^[268]

   In August 2019, the government announced a ban on 8 VW Group diesel
   models cars for cheating emissions regulations.^[269]^[270]


   As of 28 October 2015, a Spanish court had opened a criminal probe
   against Volkswagen AG, to establish whether the company's actions broke
   any local laws.^[271]


   As of 29 September 2015, Sweden's chief prosecutor was considering
   starting a preliminary investigation into Volkswagen's emissions


   On 26 September 2015 Switzerland banned sales of Volkswagen diesel
   cars, marking the most severe step taken so far by a government in
   reaction to the emissions crisis.^[273]

      United Kingdom[edit]

   The Department for Transport announced on 24 September 2015 that it
   would begin re-testing cars from a variety of manufacturers to ensure
   the use of "defeat devices" was not industry wide.^[274] The UK
   Parliamentary Transport Select Committee opened an enquiry into
   Volkswagen Emissions Violations with evidence sessions on 12 October
   2015 and 25 January 2016. The Select Committee published a letter from
   Paul Willis, managing director of Volkswagen Group UK Ltd of 21
   December 2015 stating: "In very simple terms, the software did amend
   NO[x] characteristics in testing. The vehicles did meet EU5 standards,
   so it clearly contributed to meeting the EU5 standards in

   A report on "real world" tests commissioned by the Government published
   in April 2016 showed emissions from 37 diesel engines up to 14 times
   higher than had been claimed, with every vehicle exceeding the legal
   limit of nitrogen oxide emissions.^[276] Only Volkswagen group vehicles
   were found to have test cycle detection software.

   In January 2017, an action group announced it had 25,000 vehicle owners
   who were seeking compensation of -L-3,000-4,000 per vehicle.^[citation

   In May 2022, VW UK settled UK class action claims from around 90,000
   drivers, totalling -L-193m, without admitting liability.^[277] Due to
   time limitations, Dieselgate victims not part of this group litigation
   will unlikely be able to now make a claim. ^[278]

      United States[edit]

   Recalled Volkswagens stored at Gary/Chicago International Airport

   VW suspended sales of TDI-equipped cars in the US on 20 September 2015.
   On 21 September 2015 the EPA announced that should the allegations be
   proven, Volkswagen Group could face fines of up to US$37,500 per
   vehicle (about US$18 billion in total).^[279] In addition to possible
   civil fines, the United States Department of Justice Environment and
   Natural Resources Division were doing a criminal probe of Volkswagen
   AG's conduct.^[280]^[281] 22 September 2015 The United States House
   Energy Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations announced that it
   would hold a hearing into the Volkswagen scandal while New York
   Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said that his investigation was
   already underway.^[282] As of 29 October 2015, over 25 other states'
   attorneys general, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Detroit,
   were involved in similar investigations.^[259] On 12 November 2015, the
   FBI confirmed to engineering magazine Ingenio/ren that it had an
   ongoing investigation,^[283] after previous unconfirmed reports.^[41]

   As of 6 October 2015, the EPA decided to broaden its investigations
   onto 28 diesel-powered models made by BMW, Chrysler, General Motors,
   Land Rover and Mercedes-Benz. The agency would initially focus on one
   used vehicle of each model, and widen the probe if it encountered
   suspicious data.^[284] The EPA has described^[when?] the hidden
   Volkswagen pollution as "knowing endangerment".^[285] In May 2016, the
   owners of Mercedes-Benz confirmed that the US Justice Department asked
   Daimler AG to run an internal investigation into its diesel emissions
   testing, as well.^[242]

   On 4 January 2016, the Justice Department, on behalf of the EPA,
   brought suit against Volkswagen in the United States District Court for
   the Eastern District of Michigan in Detroit. The complaint, seeking up
   to $46 billion in penalties for Clean Air Act violations,^[286] alleged
   that Volkswagen equipped certain 2.0 and 3.0-litre diesel-engine
   vehicles with emissions cheating software, causing
   NO[x] pollution to exceed EPA's standards during normal driving
   conditions. It further claimed that Volkswagen entities provided
   misleading information and that material omissions impeded and
   obstructed "efforts to learn the truth about the (excess)
   emissions".^[286] while "so far recall discussions with the company
   have not produced an acceptable way forward".^[130]^[287] On 9 January
   2016, US officials criticized Volkswagen for citing German law in order
   to withhold documents from a group of states investigating the
   company's actions. Schneiderman also complained over Volkswagen's
   slowness in producing documents from its US files, claiming the company
   "has sought to delay responses until it completes its 'independent
   investigation' several months from now".^[286]

   On 12 January 2016, US regulators rejected Volkswagen's recall plans
   for its affected 2.0-litre diesel engines, submitted to CARB in
   December 2015, claiming that these "do not adequately address overall
   impacts on vehicle performance, emissions and safety".^[288]^[289]
   Volkswagen confirmed that its discussions with CARB will continue, and
   said that the company is working on bringing "a package together which
   satisfies our customers first and foremost and then also the
   regulators".^[288] The states of Arizona, West Virginia, New Mexico,
   and Texas, as well as Harris County, Texas, all filed separate lawsuits
   seeking restitution from VW. The company also faces investigations by
   48 United States state attorneys (as of
   February 2016^[update]).^[290]^[291]^[292]

   On 29 March 2016, Volkswagen was additionally sued by the United States
   Federal Trade Commission for false advertising due to fraudulent claims
   made by the company in its promotion of the affected models, which
   touted the "environmental and economic advantages" of diesel engines
   and contained claims of low emissions output. The suit was consolidated
   into existing litigation over the matter in San Francisco, which would
   allow the FTC to participate in global settlements over the

   The Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled on 1 June 2020 that
   Volkswagen was liable for further legal damage lawsuits brought by
   state and local governments in the emissions fraud. The unanimous
   ruling by the court paved the way for two counties in Florida and Utah
   to proceed with litigation against Volkswagen, as well as potential
   further cases brought by jurisdictions in the US. By June 2020, VW had
   already expended $33.3 billion in settlements and other costs including
   buybacks of the excessively polluting diesel vehicles. In a statement,
   VW said it would ask the circuit court to review the ruling, and that
   the company if necessary would take the case to the U.S. Supreme

        Charges against Volkswagen engineering/management[edit]

   On 9 September 2016, James Robert Liang, a Volkswagen engineer working
   at Volkswagen's testing facility in Oxnard, California, admitted as
   part of a plea deal with the US Department of Justice that the defeat
   device had been purposely installed in US vehicles with the knowledge
   of his engineering team: "Liang admitted that beginning in about 2006,
   he and his co-conspirators started to design a new "EA 189" diesel
   engine for sale in the United States. ... When he and his
   co-conspirators realized that they could not design a diesel engine
   that would meet the stricter US emissions standards, they designed and
   implemented [the defeat device] software".^[54]

   On 7 January 2017, former top emissions compliance manager for
   Volkswagen in the US Oliver Schmidt was arrested by the FBI on a charge
   of conspiracy to defraud the United States.^[295] On 11 January 2017
   Volkswagen pleaded guilty to weaving a vast conspiracy to defraud the
   US government and obstructing a federal investigation and agreed to pay
   a US$2.8 billion criminal fine and US$1.5 billion in civil penalties.
   In addition, six executives have been criminally charged.^[296]

   On 3 May 2018, former Volkswagen CEO Martin Winterkorn was indicted on
   fraud and conspiracy charges in the emissions scandal case. He has
   repeatedly denied any knowledge of the rigged emissions tests.^[15]


   On 25 October 2016, a final settlement was approved by a judge. About
   475,000 Volkswagen owners in the US were given the choice between a
   buyback or a free fix and compensation, if a repair becomes available.
   Volkswagen will begin administering the settlement immediately, having
   already devoted several hundred employees to handling the process.
   Buybacks range in value from $12,475 to $44,176, including restitution
   payments, and vary based on mileage. People who opt for a fix approved
   by the Environmental Protection Agency will receive payouts ranging
   from $5,100 to $9,852, depending on the book value of their car.

   Of the buyback, 138,000 had been completed by 18 February 2017 with
   150,000 more to be returned. 52,000 chose to keep their cars. 67,000
   diesel cars from model year 2015 were cleared for repairs, but left
   uncertainty about the future of 325,000 "Generation One" diesel VWs
   from the 2009-2014 model years, which use the "lean
   NO[x] trap" and would be harder to repair.^[297]^[298]

   In March 2018, Reuters reported that 294,000 cars from the buyback
   program have been stored at 37 regional US staging sites;^[299] some of
   the first reported sites included: Colorado Springs, Colorado;^[300]
   Pontiac, Michigan;^[301] Baltimore, Maryland;^[302] San Bernardino,
   California;^[303] and Gary, Indiana.^[304]

   Volkswagen will also pay $2.7 billion for environmental mitigation and
   another $2 billion for clean-emissions infrastructure.^[305] Toward
   that end, Volkswagen formed a U.S. subsidiary called Electrify America,
   LLC., based in Reston, Virginia, that will manage the $2 billion
   brand-neutral zero-emission vehicle infrastructure programs and
   marketing campaigns for the next ten years. The group will get four
   installments of $500 million, at
   2+1/2-year intervals, subject to California Air Resources Board and
   U.S. EPA approval.^[306] Volkswagen plans to install hundreds of
   chargers with 50, 150 and even some ultra-fast 320 kW charge rate,
   beginning in California in 2017.^[307]^[308] Competing charge networks
   (and automakers) saw the effort as controversial.^[309]^[310] In August
   2018, Electrify America launched the first national media advertising
   campaign to promote electric vehicles; it featured the Chevy Bolt, with
   other EVs in cameo roles.^[311]

        Securities and Exchange Commission lawsuit[edit]

   On 14 March 2019, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filed a
   complaint against Volkswagen and its former CEO Martin Winterkorn
   alleging that they defrauded investors by selling corporate bonds and
   asset-backed securities while knowingly making false and misleading
   statements to government regulators, underwriters, and consumers as to
   the quality of their automobiles.^[312]

    Private actions[edit]

   By 27 September 2015 at least 34 class-action lawsuits had been filed
   in the United States^[313]^[314]^[315] and Canada^[316]^[317] on behalf
   of Volkswagen and Audi owners, accusing Volkswagen of breach of
   contract, fraudulent concealment, false advertising, and violations of
   federal and state laws, and positing the "diminished value" of diesels
   that will be fixed to conform with pollution regulations, due to
   possible reductions in horsepower and fuel efficiency.^[318] According
   to Reuters, one reason class action lawyers were able to mobilize so
   fast is that the company's marketing to upscale professionals,
   including jurists, had backfired.^[319]

   As of 30 September 2015^[update], at least one investor lawsuit seeking
   class action status for holders of Volkswagen American Depositary
   Receipts had been filed in the United States seeking compensation for
   the drop in stock value due to the emissions scandal.^[320]

   On 7 October 2015, the Los Angeles Times reported that the number of
   class-action lawsuits filed had grown to more than 230.^[321]

   On 19 November 2015, ABC News Australia reported that more than 90,000
   VW, Audi and Skoda diesel vehicle owners had filed a class action
   lawsuit against Volkswagen in the country's Federal Court.^[177]

   On 8 December 2015, the United States Judicial Panel on Multidistrict
   Litigation issued an order consolidating over 500 class actions against
   Volkswagen into a single multidistrict litigation, captioned In re:
   Volkswagen 'Clean Diesel' Marketing, Sales Practices, and Products
   Liability Litigation, MDL No. 2672, and transferred the entire MDL to
   Judge Charles R. Breyer of the federal district court for the Northern
   District of California.^[322]^[298]

   On 21 January 2016, Judge Breyer held a hearing on the requests by over
   150 plaintiff's attorneys for some kind of leadership role in the
   gigantic Volkswagen MDL, of which over 50 sought to serve as lead
   counsel or to chair the plaintiffs' steering committee.^[323] More than
   100 of those attorneys tried to squeeze into his San Francisco
   courtroom to argue their requests in person, and some of them had to
   stand in the aisles or in the outside hallway.^[323] That afternoon,
   Judge Breyer issued an order naming 22 attorneys to a plaintiffs'
   steering committee, and of those, selected Elizabeth Cabraser of Lieff
   Cabraser as chair of the committee.^[323] On the other side, Volkswagen
   hired Robert Giuffra of Sullivan & Cromwell as its lead defense counsel
   in the MDL.^[324]

   On 14 March 2016, Volkswagen AG was sued in Germany for allegedly
   failing to inform financial markets in a timely manner about defeat
   devices used in diesel engines. The suit on behalf of 278 institutional
   investors seeks EUR3.3 billion (US$3.7 billion at March 2016 exchange
   rate) in compensation.^[325] BlackRock Inc., the world's largest asset
   manager, joined other institutional investors in the lawsuit in
   September 2016.^[326]

   In November 2015, Moody's Investors Service downgraded Volkswagen's
   bond credit rating from A2 to A3.^[327] Fitch Ratings downgraded
   Volkswagen's Long-term Issuer Default Rating by two notches to BBB+,
   with a negative outlook.^[174]^[328]

   In May 2016, The Children's Investment Fund Management, run by Chris
   Hohn and retaining a 2 percent stake in Volkswagen preference stock,
   launched a campaign aiming to overhaul the company's executive pay
   system, arguing that "for years management has been richly rewarded
   with massive compensation despite presiding over a productivity and
   profit collapse", thereby leading to an "aggressive management
   behavior" and contributing to the diesel emission scandal.^[329] Later
   the same month, German investor group DSW called for an independent
   audit of Volkswagen's emissions-cheating practices, arguing that the
   company's internal investigation might not necessarily make everything
   transparent to smaller shareholders.^[330]

   On 28 June 2016, Volkswagen agreed to pay $15.3 billion^[331] to settle
   the various public and private civil actions in the United States, the
   largest settlement ever of an automobile-related consumer class action
   in United States history.^[332] On 25 October 2016, a U.S. federal
   judge approved the settlement.^[333] Up to $10 billion will be paid to
   475,000 Volkswagen or Audi owners whose cars are equipped with
   2.0-litre diesel engines. Owners can also opt to have their car
   repaired free of charge or can sell it back to the company, who will
   pay back its estimated value from before the scandal began. Leases can
   also be terminated without incurring penalty charges. Independent of
   which options are selected, owners will still receive compensation
   ranging from $5,000 to $10,000 per affected car. Additionally, should
   they choose to decline the offer, they are free to pursue independent
   legal action against the firm.^[334] The settlement also includes $2.7
   billion for environmental mitigation, $2 billion to promote
   zero-emissions vehicles and $603 million for claims by 44 states,
   Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico.^[335] Volkswagen agreed not to
   resell or export any vehicles it repurchases unless an approved
   emission repair has been completed.^[331] As of 28 June 2016^[update],
   no practical engineering solutions that would bring the vehicles into
   compliance with emission standards had been publicly identified.^[331]
   The consumer settlement will resolve all claims by participating
   consumers against Volkswagen and all its associates, except for any
   potential claims against Robert Bosch GmbH.^[331] Bosch supplied two
   exhaust treatment components and engine control software.^[155] In the
   case of 3.0-litre V6 TDI engines, Volkswagen suggested it can provide
   an uncomplicated fix that will bring the vehicles into compliance
   without adversely affecting performance, a move that the company hopes
   will avoid an expensive buyback of these cars.^[336]

  European Investment Bank's possible involvement[edit]

   In January 2016, documents obtained by CEE Bankwatch Network provided
   more details for a European Investment Bank statement that its loans to
   Volkswagen may have been connected to the car makers use of cheating
   devices to rig emission tests. The 'Antrieb RDI' loan was supposedly
   for creating cleaner drive trains.

   However, during the bank's annual press conference on 14 January 2016,
   the bank president, Werner Hoyer, admitted that the EUR400,000,000 loan
   might have been used in the creation of an emissions defeat
   device.^[337] Many redacted documents obtained by Bankwatch, along with
   the EIB not disclosing the details of the loan, hint to the bank
   possibly already knowing that there were some discrepancies with the
   'Antrieb RDI' loan.^[338]

   In 2017, the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) found that Volkswagen
   had misled the bank about the car company's use of emissions cheating
   software, in a scandal that has become known as Dieselgate.^[337]

   Also in 2017, Hoyer said the bank did not find "any indication" that
   its loans had been misused. However, six months later news website
   Politico reported that Olaf had concluded that Volkswagen acquired the
   EIB loan through "fraud" and "deception".^[337]

  Models affected[edit]

   Vehicle line-up at 2012 Volkswagen Great Canadian Clean Diesel Tour

   By 22 September 2015, Volkswagen had admitted that 11 million vehicles
   sold worldwide are affected in addition to the 480,000 vehicles with
   2.0 L TDI engines sold in the US.^[339] According to Volkswagen,
   vehicles sold in other countries with the 1.6 L and 2.0 L 4-cylinder
   TDI engine known as Type EA189 are also affected. This software is also
   said to affect EA188 and the 2015 EA288 generation of the
   four-cylinder.^[340] Worldwide, around 1.2 million Skodas^[341] and 2.1
   million Audis may contain the software, including TTs and Qs.^[342] VW
   states that Euro6 model in Germany are not affected, while 2015 US
   models with the same EA288 engines are affected. This suggests that
   normal-operation measurements that place the EA288
   NO[x] emissions between the two standards' limits were readily
   available at Volkswagen headquarters in Germany. According to Mueller,
   the 1.2 and 2.0-litre models may be updated by software, whereas the
   around 3 million 1.6-litre require various hardware solutions, and some
   cars may even be replaced. The cars are so diverse that many different
   solutions are required.^[343]

   Over one quarter of Volkswagen's sales in the US are diesel-powered
   vehicles. The corporation has chosen a market strategy that emphasizes
   clean diesel over electric cars or hybrid electric vehicles.^[344]

   The vehicles affected by the recall in the US include the following
   model years:^[345]^[346]^[347]^[348]^[349]

     * 2009-2015 Audi A3 2.0 L TDI
     * 2009-2015 Volkswagen Beetle 2.0 L TDI
     * 2009-2015 Volkswagen Beetle Convertible 2.0 L TDI
     * 2009-2015 Volkswagen Golf 2.0 L TDI
     * 2015 Volkswagen Golf Sportwagen 2.0 L TDI
     * 2009-2015 Volkswagen Jetta 2.0 L TDI
     * 2009-2014 Volkswagen Jetta Sportwagen 2.0 L TDI
     * 2012-2015 Volkswagen Passat 2.0 L TDI

   The EPA revealed on 2 November 2015 that Volkswagen had shipped
   additional diesel models with defeat devices, including the 2014 VW
   Touareg and the 2015 Porsche Cayenne. Model year 2016 Audi Quattro
   diesels were also found affected, including several 2016 Audi Quattro
   models (the 2016 Audi Quattro A6, A7, A8, A8L, and Q5).^[350] Cynthis
   Giles, the EPA Assistant Administrator for Office of Enforcement and
   Compliance Assurance, called out the company for further refusing to
   take responsibility for its failure to comply with the law. Under US
   federal Clean Air Act, Volkswagen could be liable for up to $375
   million in fines.^[351]

    Resale value[edit]

   As of 26 October 2015^[update], the resale value of affected model cars
   in the US was down from 5 to nearly 16 percent depending on model as
   compiled by Black Book and Kelley Blue Book based on used car auction
   prices, the volume of which was also down.^[352]

   On 15 March 2016, Volkswagen Financial Services took a writedown of
   EUR353,000,000 to cover a potential decline in the residual value of
   the fleet of its leased cars.^[353]

  Effects on Volkswagen corporate[edit]

    Stock value[edit]

   Price of Volkswagen AG (VOW.DE) stock, Adjusted Close. Width of line
   shows Volume. Text in green is the percent difference from previous
   day's close. In red is the percent difference from the close on 17
   September 2015.^[354]

   CAPTION: Price of Volkswagen AG (VOW.DE) stock 17 September-5 October

      Date      Adj Close  Volume   % diff from 17 Sep % diff from previous day
   17 September 167       60,600    0.00%
   18 September 161       112,700   -3.61%             -3.61%
   21 September 134       1,496,700 -20.13%            -17.14%
   22 September 111       3,058,700 -33.57%            -16.83%
   23 September 119       2,381,300 -28.97%            6.92%
   24 September 119       1,542,800 -28.97%            0.00%
   25 September 116       880,700   -30.97%            -2.82%
   28 September 107       865,400   -36.02%            -7.31%
   29 September 103       513,700   -38.29%            -3.55%
   30 September 105       416,500   -37.31%            1.60%
   1 October    105       477,700   -38.59%            0.10%
   2 October    101       588,700   -39.58%            -3.71%
   5 October    103       754,400   -38.59%            1.63%

   On 21 September 2015, the first day of trading after the EPA's Notice
   of Violation to Volkswagen became public, share prices of Volkswagen AG
   fell 20 percent on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.^[355] On 22 September,
   the stock fell another 12 percent. On 23 September, the stock quickly
   fell 10.5 percent, dropping below EUR100 to a record 4-year low before
   regaining some lost ground.^[356]^[357] Share prices of other German
   automakers were also affected, with BMW down 4.9 percent and Daimler
   down 5.8%.^[358] A year later Volkswagen stock was down by 30

   Qatar, one of the biggest Volkswagen shareholders with a 17 percent
   stake in the company, lost nearly $5 billion as the company stock value


   The US sale of Volkswagens was 23,882 vehicles in November 2015, a 24.7
   percent decline from November 2014.^[361]^[362]

   In South Korea, sales in November rose 66 percent to 4,517 units from a
   year ago due to the Volkswagen's aggressive marketing efforts such as a
   discount of up to W=18,000,000 (US$15,600 at December 2015 exchange
   rates) for some models.^[363]

   In Great Britain, the scandal did not affect sales, which increased in
   2016 to an all-point high, placing Volkswagen second in the league of
   best-selling cars.^[364]

   VW sales across Europe returned to growth in April 2016 for the first
   time since the scandal broke, with a group market share of 25.2
   percent, compared to its previous level of 26.1 percent.^[365]

  Transgressions by other manufacturers[edit]

   Main article: Diesel emissions scandal

   The Volkswagen scandal more generally raised awareness over the high
   levels of pollution being emitted by diesel vehicles built by a wide
   range of carmakers, including Volvo, Renault, Mercedes, Jeep, Hyundai,
   Citroen, BMW, Mazda, Fiat, Ford and Peugeot.^[43]^[44] Independent
   tests carried out by ADAC proved that, under normal driving conditions,
   diesel vehicles including the Volvo S60, Renault's Espace Energy and
   the Jeep Renegade, exceeded legal European emission limits for nitrogen
   oxide (
   NO[x]) by more than 10 times.^[44] Researchers have criticized the
   inadequacy of current regulations and called for the use of a
   UN-sanctioned test called Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test
   Procedures that better reflects real-life driving conditions, as well
   as on-road emissions testing via PEMS. The two types of new test
   started to come into force in 2017, with critics saying that car firms
   have lobbied fiercely to delay their implementation, due to the high
   cost of meeting stricter environmental controls.^[43]

   The Volkswagen scandal has increased scrutiny on combustion engines in
   general, and Volkswagen and several other car makes have been shown to
   pollute more than allowed.^[42]^[43]^[44] A French government report in
   2016 investigated 86 different cars, and about 1/5th of those were
   found to comply with emission laws. Most did not. One car was measured
   to emit 17 times more than allowed.^[366] An overview of tests showed
   that cars turned off the exhaust improvement device in many ordinary
   conditions,^[367] with 5 out 38 cars complying with regulations in an
   English test.^[368] A German test showed 10 out of 53 cars compliant
   when exposed to temperatures below 10 degrees Celsius.^[369] A French
   test showed 4 out of 52 cars compliant when tested outside (not in a
   laboratory).^[370] A 2016 test showed Volkswagen diesel cars to emit at
   about twice the Euro6 limit, and several other manufacturers emitting
   more, up to 14 times higher.^[371]

   As of March 2017, 38 out of 40 diesel cars of all brands tested by ADAC
   failed a
   NO[x]-test based on government standards.^[372]

  Industry consequences[edit]

   Renault believes that diesel cars would become significantly more
   expensive when re-engineered to comply with new emissions regulations
   as a result of the Volkswagen disclosures, to the point that diesel
   cars may not be competitive.^[373] Industry-wide, small diesel engines
   are being replaced by bigger ones,^[374]^[375] and electric car sales
   have risen.^[359]

   Suzuki had won the case to terminate its partnership with Volkswagen at
   the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of
   Commerce and dissolved the capital tie-up until September 2015,^[376]
   and was not involved in this scandal.

   On 16 June 2016, Volkswagen announced plans to make major investments
   into the production of electric vehicles; Matthias Mueller predicted
   that Volkswagen would introduce 30 all-electric models over the next 10
   years, and that electric vehicles would account for around a quarter of
   its annual sales by 2025. Volkswagen plans to fund the initiative by
   streamlining its operations and engaging in cost-cutting. Mueller
   stated that the changes would "require us - following the serious
   setback as a result of the diesel issue - to learn from mistakes made,
   rectify shortcomings and establish a corporate culture that is open,
   value-driven and rooted in integrity".^[377] Volkswagen plans a battery
   factory near Salzgitter to compensate for the reduced numbers of piston

   In November 2016, Volkswagen and its labour unions agreed to reduce the
   workforce by 30,000 people until 2021 as a result of the costs from the
   violations. However, 9,000 new jobs would come by producing more
   electric cars.^[380] Volkswagen CEO Herbert Diess stated to the German
   financial publication Handelsblatt that the company planned to stop
   marketing diesel models in the U.S., citing "the legal

  Secondary market consequences[edit]

   A study made by the researchers Prof. Itai Ater and Nir S. Yoseph from
   Tel Aviv University explored the effect of the scandal on the secondary
   market in Israel. According to this study, which was publish at The
   Journal of Industrial Economics the Volkswagen emissions scandal had a
   statistically significant negative effect on the number of transactions
   in the secondary market involving the affected models (nearly -18
   percent) and on their resale price (nearly -6 percent). The study also
   find that the reduction in the number of transactions was driven mostly
   by private sellers and that non-private sellers barely shied away from
   the market. These findings suggest that the supply of used cars among
   private sellers is much more elastic relative to the supply of used
   cars among non-private sellers.^[382] The authors of the study argue
   that lower willingness-to-pay and adverse selection following
   Dieselgate could also explain those results. ^[383]

Other manufacturers[edit]

   After news broke out of Volkswagen cheating on diesel emissions,
   multiple other vehicle manufacturers got caught cheating on emissions
   in a similar manner. This included FCA^[384] (now a part of
   Stellantis), Opel^[385] (Under GM), Hino^[386] (subsidiary of Toyota),
   Mercedes-Benz,^[387] and BMW.^[388] Other manufacturers such as
   Nissan,^[389] Renault,^[390] Suzuki,^[391] Peugeot,^[392]
   Citoren,^[393] Mitsubishi,^[394] Hyundai, and Kia^[395] have been
   accused for cheating on emission tests.


   In January 2018, it was revealed that Volkswagen had experimented on
   monkeys in May 2015 to prove that diesel exhaust was not harmful to
   primates. The disclosure of the tests was named Monkeygate.^[396]^[397]
   However, the test car was a Volkswagen Beetle fitted with the defeat
   device that produced far less emissions in the experiment than it would
   on the highway.^[398]^[399] Volkswagen's top lobbyist, Thomas Steg, was
   suspended on 23 January 2018.^[400]


  Political figures[edit]

   German Chancellor Angela Merkel stated she hoped that all facts in the
   matter would be made known promptly, urging "complete transparency".
   She additionally noted that Germany's Transport Minister, Alexander
   Dobrindt, was in ongoing communication with Volkswagen.^[401]

   Michel Sapin, the French Finance Minister, called for an investigation
   of diesel-powered cars that would encompass the entire continent of

   Catherine Bearder, MEP for South East England, commented on 27 October
   2015 in the European Parliament that "we now have the political
   momentum for a radical overhaul that will ensure carmakers cannot dodge
   the rules", defending an EU resolution meant to specifically "cut
   deadly pollution from diesel vehicles".^[228] However, when the
   European Commission proceeded with passing legislation that allowed the
   car industry more time to comply with the newer regulation, while also
   permitting cars, even under the more "realistic" tests, to emit more
   than twice the legal limit of nitrogen oxides (
   NO[x]) from 2019 and up to 50 percent more from 2021, Bearder denounced
   the legislation as "a disgraceful stitch-up by national governments,
   who are once again putting the interests of carmakers ahead of public

   London Assembly member Stephen Knight suggested on 1 November 2015 that
   diesel vehicles should either be banned in the future, or face
   stringent tests before being allowed to enter London's low-emissions
   zone. The city's deputy mayor for the environment, Matthew Pencharz,
   responded that such measures could lead to serious economic

  Automotive industry and other commentators[edit]

   Major car manufacturers, including Toyota, GM, PSA Peugeot Citroen,
   Renault, Mazda, Daimler (Mercedes Benz), and Honda, issued press
   statements reaffirming their vehicles' compliance with all regulations
   and legislation for the markets in which they operate; The Society of
   Motor Manufacturers and Traders described the issue as affecting "just
   one company", with no evidence to suggest that the whole industry might
   be affected.^[404]

   Renault-Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn said it would be difficult for an
   automaker to conceal internally an effort to falsify vehicle emissions
   data, such as has happened at Volkswagen AG: "I don't think you can do
   something like this hiding in the bushes."^[405]

   Jim Holder, the editorial director of Haymarket Automotive, which
   publishes WhatCar and AutoCar, opined that there had never been a
   scandal in the automotive industry of this size.^[406]

   A commentary in Spiegel Online argued that the Volkswagen scandal will
   affect the entire German industry, and that German companies operating
   abroad will face a decrease in competitiveness.^[407]

   Alan Brown, chairman of the Volkswagen National Dealer Advisory
   Council, commented on the scandal's negative impact on US dealers, who
   were already struggling with overpriced products and a deteriorating
   relationship between the company and the dealer body.^[408] Car and
   Driver similarly emphasized Volkswagen's inability to efficiently
   operate in the US market, while also suggesting that the company had
   grossly underestimated the EPA's power, and inexplicably failed to go
   public before the story broke, despite receiving ample warning.^[409]

   Tesla Motors CEO Elon Musk was asked about his opinion whether the
   scandal will weaken the consumer's view on green technologies; he
   responded saying he expects the opposite to happen: "What Volkswagen is
   really showing is that we've reached the limit of what's possible with
   diesel and petrol. The time has come to move to a new generation of

   Similarly, analysts at Fitch suggested the Volkswagen diesel emissions
   crisis was likely to affect the entire automotive industry, with petrol
   cars potentially enjoying a revival in Europe and greater investment
   being poured into electric vehicles.^[92] Other commentators argued
   that the diesel engine will nevertheless regain its footing in the
   market, due to its international indispensability, low CO[2] emissions
   and strong presence in the US pickup- and commercial-truck

   On 29 September 2015, S&P Dow Jones Indices and RobecoSAM stated that
   Volkswagen AG's stock will be de-listed from the Dow Jones
   Sustainability indexes after close of trading on 5 October 2015. Among
   the reasons for the de-listing, the statement issued by RobecoSAM cited
   social and ethical reasons, and confirmed that Volkswagen will no
   longer be identified as an Industry Group Leader in the "Automobiles &
   Components" industry group.^[411]

   In early October, Green Car Journal rescinded its Green Car of the Year
   awards, for models that "best raise the bar in environmental
   performance", that were given to the 2009 Volkswagen Jetta TDI and 2010
   Audi A3 TDI models.^[412]

   In December 2015, a group of business and environmental leaders,
   including Tesla CEO Elon Musk, addressed an open letter to CARB, urging
   the agency to absolve Volkswagen of recalling the 85,000 diesel
   vehicles affected by the scandal in the US, and argued that Volkswagen
   should instead be asked to allocate resources to an accelerated rollout
   of zero-emissions vehicles ("cure the air, not the cars"). The letter,
   which includes a 5-step legally enforceable plan, argues that this
   course of action could result in a "10 for 1 or greater reduction in
   pollutant emissions as compared to the pollution associated with the
   diesel fleet cheating", while suggesting that the affected vehicles on
   the road in California "represent an insignificant portion of total
   vehicles emissions in the State" and "do not, individually, present any
   emissions-related risk to their owners or occupants".^[413]^[414]
   Similar requests were put forward by the American Lung Association, who
   petitioned the EPA to determine Volkswagen to promote zero-emissions
   vehicles, build sustainable transport infrastructure and retrofit older
   diesel models with superior emissions controls.^[415]

   Volkswagen got a 2016 Ig Nobel Prize in chemistry from the scientific
   humor magazine Annals of Improbable Research for "solving the problem
   of excessive automobile pollution emissions by automatically,
   electromechanically producing fewer emissions whenever the cars are
   being tested".^[416]


   The Volkswagen TDI emissions scandal has received widespread negative
   media exposure,^[417]^[418]^[419]^[420]^[421]^[422] with headlines
   fronting the websites of multiple news gathering and reporting
   organizations.^[60]^[101]^[423]^[424] Reuters said that the crisis at
   Volkswagen could be a bigger threat to the German economy than the
   consequences of the 2015 Greek sovereign debt default.^[425] Deutsche
   Welle, one of Germany's state broadcasters, said that a "lawsuit
   tsunami" was headed for Volkswagen and that the scandal had dealt a
   blow to the country's psyche and "Made in Germany" brand.^[426] Popular
   Mechanics said that the scandal "is much worse than a recall",
   highlighting that Volkswagen had engaged in a pattern of "cynical

   The Volkswagen emissions cheating scandal has joined the ranks of other
   -gate suffix stories, with media coining both Dieselgate and
   Emissionsgate to describe it.^[150]^[162]^[208]^[428]^[429]^[430]

  Public polling[edit]

   Despite the scandal, one poll conducted for Bild suggested that the
   majority of Germans (55 percent) still have "great faith" in
   Volkswagen, with over three-quarters believing that other carmakers are
   equally guilty of manipulation.^[431] Similarly, a poll conducted by
   the management consultancy Prophet in October 2015 indicated that
   two-thirds of Germans believe the scandal to be exaggerated and
   continue to regard Volkswagen as a builder of "excellent cars".^[432] A
   survey by Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management, Brand
   Imperatives and Survata said that nearly 50 percent of US consumers had
   either a positive or very positive impression of Volkswagen, while 7.5
   percent had a "very negative" impression.^[433] Another US survey by
   market researcher AutoPacific found that 64 percent of vehicle owners
   do not trust Volkswagen and only 25 percent of them have a positive
   view of Volkswagen following the scandal.^[434]^[435]

See also[edit]

     * Exhaust gas recirculation
     * FTP-75
     * Goodhart's law - Adage about statistical measures
     * NOx adsorber
     * Vehicle regulation

    Cars flag  Germany  Companies icon  Law icon  Environment


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Further reading[edit]


   Plungis, Jeff; Hull, Dana (20 September 2015). "VW's Emissions Cheating
   Found by Curious Clean-Air Group". The Washington Post. Archived from
   the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.

     Duffer, Robert (22 September 2015). "Volkswagen diesel scandal: What
   you need to know". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 15 July 2016.

     Bryant, Chris; Milne, Richard (4 October 2015). "Volkswagen's
   'uniquely awful' governance at fault in emissions scandal". Wolfsburg
   and Frankfurt: CNBC. Retrieved 5 October 2015.

     Hyde, Justin (3 November 2015). "EPA Finds 10,000 Additional Audi,
   Porsche And VW Diesels Faked Emissions". Yahoo! Autos. Retrieved 15
   July 2016.

     Sura, Marissa. "Double Exposure: WVU researchers uncovered an
   emissions cheating scandal that made headlines around the world, but
   the real story is how their work will create safer, healthier cities".
   Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.

External links[edit]

               External images
   image icon EA 189 engine, starboard side
   image icon EA 189 engine, port side

     * EPA Notice of Violation
     * State of California EPA In-Use Compliance Letter Archived 24
       September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
     * VW diesel official FAQ
     * Written Testimony of Michael Horn, CEO of Volkswagen Group of
       America Before the U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce, 8
       October 2015
     * Analysis of the emission scandal from a procedural, organizational
       and technical level: The exhaust emissions scandal ("Dieselgate"),
       talk at 2015 Chaos Communication Congress.
     * U.S. v. Volkswagen AG, Complaint, Filed 4 January 2016
     * Infographic - simple overview

   Koberstein, Hans (15 August 2017). The VW emissions scandal - past,
   present and future. DW-TV. Retrieved 26 November 2019.

     "UK drivers win first round in VW 'dieselgate' case". BBC. UK. 6
   April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.

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     * Jetta (JV with FAW)

   Commercial vehicles
     * Traton
          + MAN Truck & Bus
          + Navistar International
          + Scania
          + Volkswagen Truck & Bus
     * Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles

     * Ducati

     * MAN Energy Solutions
     * MWM International Motores

     * Electrify America
     * Electrify Canada
     * Italdesign Giugiaro

     * Skoda Auto Volkswagen India
     * Volkswagen Group of America (Electronics Research Laboratory)
     * Volkswagen Argentina
     * Volkswagen do Brasil
          + AutoLatina (defunct)
     * Volkswagen Group China
     * Volkswagen de Mexico
     * Volkswagen Group Rus (defunct)
     * Volkswagen of South Africa


     * SAIC Volkswagen (50%)
     * FAW-Volkswagen (40%)
     * Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Holdings (50%)
     * IAV (50%)
     * Here (33.3%)
     * Argo AI (42%)
     * Sinotruk (Hong Kong) (25%)
     * Hino and Traton Global Procurement (51%)

   Products and technologies

     * Platforms
     * Vehicles

     * Diesel: current / discontinued
     * Petrol: current / discontinued
     * North America

     * BlueMotion
     * Digifant
     * DSG
     * ETKA
     * FSI
     * Pumpe Duese
     * Quattro
     * SDI
     * TDI
     * VAG-COM

   Discontinued brands

     * Auto Union
     * DKW
     * Horch (Original)
     * NSU
     * Wanderer


     * Autostadt
     * Ehra-Lessien
     * Factories


     * Ferdinand Porsche (founder)
     * Carl Hahn (Chairman Emeritus)
     * Ivan Hirst (Former Managing Director)
     * Rudolf Leiding (Former CEO)
     * Kurt Lotz (Former CEO)
     * Heinrich Nordhoff (Former Managing Director)
     * Ferdinand Piech (Former Chairman of the Supervisory Board, former
     * Bernd Pischetsrieder (Former CEO)
     * Hans Dieter Poetsch (Chairman of the Supervisory Board)
     * Toni Schmuecker (Former CEO)
     * Martin Winterkorn (Former Chairman of the Board of Management)
     * Porsche Family (owner)


     * Teams: Rally Teams
     * Series: Formula Vee
     * Formula Super Vee
     * Formula Volkswagen Germany
     * Jetta TDI Cup
     * Scirocco R Cup


     * Volkswagen Emissions Scandal
     * Volkswagen Currywurst
     * Volkswagen worker organizations

     * Category

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Volkswagen passenger cars

   A marque of the Volkswagen Group
   See also: Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles


     * Arteon/CC
     * Bora
     * Gol
     * Golf
     * ID.3
     * Jetta/Sagitar/Vento
     * Lamando
     * Lavida
     * Passat (B8)/Magotan
     * Passat (China)
     * Phideon
     * Polo
     * Polo (Russia)
     * Santana
     * Up
     * Vento/Polo Sedan
     * Virtus
     * Voyage/Gol Sedan

     * Atlas/Teramont
     * ID.4
     * ID.5
     * ID.6
     * T-Cross/Tacqua/Taigun
     * T-Roc
     * Taigo/Nivus
     * Talagon
     * Taos/Tharu
     * Tavendor
     * Tayron
     * Tiguan
     * Touareg

     * ID. Buzz
     * Sharan
     * Touran
     * Viloran


     * 181
     * 411/412 (Type 4)
     * 1500/1600 (Type 3)
     * Beetle (Type 1)
     * Brasilia
     * Country Buggy/Sakbayan
     * Gacel
     * Hebmueller Cabriolet
     * Karmann Ghia
     * Kommandeurswagen
     * Kuebelwagen
     * Schwimmwagen
     * Senda
     * SP1/SP2
     * Type 18A
     * Type 147 (Fridolin)
     * VW-Porsche 914

     * Ameo
     * Apollo
     * Atlantic
     * Beetle
     * C-Trek
     * Cabrio
     * Cabriolet
     * Carat
     * Caribe
     * Citi Golf (China)
     * Citi Golf (South Africa)
     * Clasico
     * Corrado
     * Corsar
     * Dasher
     * Derby
     * Eos
     * Fox
     * Golf Plus
     * Golf Sportsvan
     * Iltis
     * K70
     * Logus
     * Lupo
     * New Beetle
     * Parati
     * Passat Lingyu
     * Passat (North America)
     * Phaeton
     * Pointer
     * Polo Playa
     * Quantum
     * Rabbit
     * Routan
     * Scirocco
     * SpaceCross
     * Suran/SpaceFox
     * Taro
     * XL1

   Concept vehicles

     * 1-Litre/L1/XL1 Concept
     * Alltrack Concept
     * ARVW
     * Auto 2000
     * Bio Runner
     * BUDD-e
     * Bulli Concept
     * C Coupe GTE
     * Chico
     * Concept A
     * Concept BlueSport
     * Concept D
     * Concept R
     * CrossBlue Concept
     * Cross Coupe GTE concept
     * EcoRacer
     * EDAG Biwak (New Beetle estate)
     * GTI Roadster/Supersport Vision Gran Turismo
     * GX3
     * I.D. Buggy
     * I.D. Buzz
     * I.D. Crozz
     * I.D. R
     * I.D. Roomzz
     * I.D. Space Vizzion
     * I.D. Vizzion
     * ID. Life
     * Iroc
     * Magellan
     * Microbus Concept
     * Milano Taxi
     * New Beetle Ragster
     * New Compact Coupe
     * Phaeton D2 Concept
     * SMV Concept
     * Stanley
     * T-Cross Breeze Concept
     * T-Roc Concept
     * T-Prime Concept GTE
     * Taigun Concept
     * Tarok Concept
     * Touran HyMotion
     * W12 Coupe/Roadster (Nardo)
     * XL Sport Concept
     * e-Beetle Concept

   Kit-cars/racing cars

     * Polo R WRC
     * I.D. R
     * Formula Vee
     * EMPI Imp
     * Baja Bug
     * Meyers Manx
     * Race Touareg


     * Petrol engines
          + Discontinued petrol engines
          + G40 / G60
     * Diesel engines
          + Discontinued diesel engines
     * North American engines
     * Air-cooled engine
     * Wasserboxer


     * Autoeuropa
     * Bratislava
     * Chattanooga
     * Transparent Factory
     * Wolfsburg
     * Zwickau


     * List of passenger cars
     * Emissions scandal
     * 4Motion
     * Advertising
     * AutoMuseum Volkswagen
     * BlueMotion
     * Ehra-Lessien
     * Deutsche Arbeitsfront
     * G-Lader
     * Herbie
     * Platforms
     * Volkswagen R
     * Westfalia Camper

     * Category

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Corporate scandals

     * South Sea Company (1720)
     * Panic of 1890 (Baring crisis) (1890)
     * Salad Oil (1963)
     * Kinney Services, Inc. (1971)
     * Banco Ambrosiano (1982)
     * Carrian Group (1983)
     * Guinness (1986)
     * Bofors scandal (1990)
     * Polly Peck (1990)
     * Bank of Credit and Commerce International (1990)
     * Indian stock market scam (1992)
     * Banesto (1993)
     * Metallgesellschaft (1993)
     * Towers Financial Corporation (1993)
     * Barings Bank (1995)
     * Sumitomo Corporation (1996)
     * Lysine price-fixing conspiracy (1997)
     * Daewoo (1999-2006)
     * Long-Term Capital Management (2000)
     * CINAR (2000)
     * One.Tel (2001)
     * Enron (2001)
     * Adelphia (2002)
     * WorldCom (2002)
     * Parmalat (2003-2005)
     * Tyco (2004)
     * Bayou Hedge Fund Group (2005)
     * Societe Generale (2008)
     * Bear Stearns (2008)
     * Libor (2008-2012)
     * Anglo Irish Bank (2008-2011)
     * Volkswagen emissions scandal (2008-ongoing)
     * Satyam (2009)
     * 2G spectrum case (2010-2019)
     * National Herald corruption case (2010-ongoing)
     * Olympus (2011)
     * Indian coal allocation scam (2012)
     * OCZ (2012-2013)
     * Saradha Group financial scandal (2013-ongoing)
     * Forex (2013-ongoing)
     * Toshiba (2015)
     * 1Malaysia Development Berhad (2015-ongoing)
     * Wells Fargo account fraud scandal (2016-ongoing)
     * Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data scandal (2018)
     * Moser Baer (2019)
     * Wirecard (2020)
     * Nikola (2020)

   See also
          Accounting scandals

   Retrieved from

     * 2015 in the environment
     * 2015 in technology
     * 2015 in transport
     * 2015 scandals
     * Cheating in business
     * Corporate scandals
     * Emission standards
     * Emissions reduction
     * Environmental controversies
     * Fraud in the European Union
     * Fraud in the United States
     * History of the diesel engine
     * Scandals in Germany
     * Scandals in the United States
     * Conspiracy to defraud the United States case law
     * Regulatory compliance
     * 2015 in Germany
     * 2015 in the United States
     * Volkswagen Group
     * Volkswagen Group diesel engines
     * Regulation in Germany

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