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Steve Wozniak

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   American computer engineer, and programmer
   For other uses, see WOZ (disambiguation).

   Steve Wozniak
   Steve Wozniak by Gage Skidmore 3 (cropped).jpg
   Wozniak in 2017
   Stephen Gary Wozniak
   (1950-08-11) August 11, 1950 (age 72)
   San Jose, California, U.S.
   Other names
     * Woz
     * Berkeley Blu (hacking alias)^[1]
     * Rocky Clark (student alias)^[2]

   Education University of Colorado, Boulder (expelled)
   University of California, Berkeley (BSE, 1986)
     * Electronics engineer
     * Entrepreneur
     * Programmer
     * Philanthropist

   Years active 1971-present
   Known for
     * Co-founder of Apple Computer
     * Apple I creator
     * Apple II co-creator and lead developer
     * Macintosh co-creator and co-developer
     * Pioneer of the personal computer revolution with Steve Jobs


   Alice Robertson
   (m. 1976⁠-⁠1980)​

   Candice Clark
   (m. 1981⁠-⁠1987)​

   Suzanne Mulkern
   (m. 1990⁠-⁠2004)​

   Janet Hill
   (m. 2008)​
   Partner Kathy Griffin (2007-2008)
   Children 3
   Call sign ex-WA6BND (ex-WV6VLY)
   Website woz.org

   Stephen Gary Wozniak (/|wA.zniaek/; born August 11, 1950), also known
   by his nickname "Woz", is an American electronics engineer, computer
   programmer, philanthropist, inventor, and technology entrepreneur. In
   1976, with business partner Steve Jobs, he co-founded Apple Computer,
   which later became the world's largest technology company by revenue
   and the largest company in the world by market capitalization. Through
   his work at Apple in the 1970s and 1980s, he is widely recognized as
   one of the most prominent pioneers of the Information Age.^[3]

   In 1975, Wozniak started developing the Apple I^[4]^: 150 into the
   computer that launched Apple when he and Jobs first began marketing it
   the following year. He primarily designed the Apple II, introduced in
   1977, known as one of the first highly successful mass-produced
   microcomputers,^[5] while Jobs oversaw the development of its
   foam-molded plastic case and early Apple employee Rod Holt developed
   its switching power supply.^[6] With human-computer interface expert
   Jef Raskin, Wozniak had a major influence over the initial development
   of the original Apple Macintosh concepts from 1979 to 1981, when Jobs
   took over the project following Wozniak's brief departure from the
   company due to a traumatic airplane accident.^[7]^[8] After permanently
   leaving Apple in 1985, Wozniak founded CL 9 and created the first
   programmable universal remote, released in 1987. He then pursued
   several other businesses and philanthropic ventures throughout his
   career, focusing largely on technology in K-12 schools.^[8]

   As of November 2019^[update], Wozniak has remained an employee of Apple
   in a ceremonial capacity since stepping down in 1985.^[9]^[10] In
   recent years, he has helped fund multiple entrepreneurial efforts
   dealing in areas such as telecommunications, flash memory, technology
   and pop culture conventions, ecology, satellites, technical education
   and more.
   [ ]


     * 1 Early life
     * 2 Career
          + 2.1 Pre-Apple
          + 2.2 Apple formation and success
          + 2.3 Plane crash and temporary leave from Apple
          + 2.4 UC Berkeley and US Festivals
          + 2.5 Return to Apple product development
          + 2.6 Final departure from Apple workforce
          + 2.7 Post-Apple
     * 3 Inventions
     * 4 Philanthropy
     * 5 Honors and awards
          + 5.1 Honorary degrees
     * 6 In media
          + 6.1 Documentaries
          + 6.2 Feature films
          + 6.3 Television
     * 7 Views on artificial superintelligence
     * 8 Personal life
     * 9 See also
     * 10 References
          + 10.1 Notes
     * 11 External links
          + 11.1 Photographs

Early life[edit]

   Wozniak's 1968 Homestead High School yearbook photo

   Stephen Gary Wozniak was born on August 11, 1950, in San Jose,
   California.^[4]^: 18 ^[11]^[12]^: 13 ^[13]^: 27 His mother, Margaret
   Louise Wozniak (nee Kern) (1923-2014),^[14]^[unreliable source?] was
   from Washington state, and his father, Francis Jacob "Jerry" Wozniak
   (1925-1994) of Michigan,^[4]^: 18 was an engineer for the Lockheed
   Corporation.^[13]^: 1 Wozniak graduated from Homestead High School in
   1968, in Cupertino, California.^[12]^: 25 Steve has one brother, Mark
   Wozniak, a former tech executive who lives in Menlo Park. He also has
   one sister, Leslie Wozniak. She attended Homestead High School in
   Cupertino. She is a grant adviser at Five Bridges Foundation, which
   helps at-risk youths in San Francisco. She once said it was her mother
   who introduced activism to her and her siblings.^[15]

   The name on Wozniak's birth certificate is "Stephan Gary Wozniak", but
   his mother said that she intended it to be spelled "Stephen", which is
   what he uses.^[4]^: 18 He has mentioned the surname "Wozniak" being
   Polish.^[16]^[4]^: 129-130 ^[N 1]

   In the early 1970s, Wozniak's blue box design earned him the nickname
   "Berkeley Blue" in the phreaking community.^[1]^[18]

   Wozniak has credited watching Star Trek and attending Star Trek
   conventions while in his youth as a source of inspiration for his
   starting Apple Computer^[19]



   See also: History of Apple S: 1971-1985: Jobs and Wozniak

   In 1969, Wozniak returned to the San Francisco Bay Area after being
   expelled from the University of Colorado Boulder in his first year for
   hacking the university's computer system.^[20]^[21]

   He re-enrolled at De Anza College in Cupertino before transferring to
   the University of California, Berkeley, in 1971.^[13]^: 1 In June of
   that year, for a self-taught engineering project, Wozniak designed and
   built his first computer with his friend Bill Fernandez.^[13]^: 1
   Predating useful microprocessors, screens, and keyboards, and using
   punch cards and only 20 TTL chips donated by an acquaintance, they
   named it "Cream Soda" after their favorite beverage. A newspaper
   reporter stepped on the power supply cable and blew up the computer,
   but it served Wozniak as "a good prelude to my thinking 5 years later
   with the Apple I and Apple II computers".^[22] Before focusing his
   attention on Apple, he was employed at Hewlett-Packard (HP), where he
   designed calculators.^[23] It was during this time that he dropped out
   of Berkeley and befriended Steve Jobs.^[24]^[25]

   Wozniak was introduced to Jobs by Fernandez, who attended Homestead
   High School with Jobs in 1971. Jobs and Wozniak became friends when
   Jobs worked for the summer at HP, where Wozniak, too, was employed,
   working on a mainframe computer.^[26]

     We first met in 1971 during my college years, while he was in high
     school. A friend said, 'you should meet Steve Jobs because he likes
     electronics, and he also plays pranks.' So he introduced us.

   -- Steve Wozniak^[25]

   Wozniak's blue box at the Computer History Museum

   Their first business partnership began later that year when Wozniak
   read an article titled "Secrets of the Little Blue Box" from the
   October 1971 issue of Esquire, and started to build his own "blue
   boxes" that enabled one to make long-distance phone calls at no
   cost.^[27]^[28] Jobs, who handled the sales of the blue boxes, managed
   to sell some two hundred of them for $150 each, and split the profit
   with Wozniak.^[29]^[30] Jobs later told his biographer that if it
   hadn't been for Wozniak's blue boxes, "there wouldn't have been an

   In 1973, Jobs was working for arcade game company Atari, Inc. in Los
   Gatos, California.^[32] He was assigned to create a circuit board for
   the arcade video game Breakout. According to Atari co-founder Nolan
   Bushnell, Atari offered $100 (equivalent to $610 in 2021) for each chip
   that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little knowledge of
   circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee
   evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips.
   Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, by using RAM for the brick
   representation. The fact that this prototype had no scoring or coin
   mechanisms meant Woz's prototype could not be used. Jobs was paid the
   full bonus regardless. Jobs told Wozniak that Atari gave them only $700
   and that Wozniak's share was thus $350 (equivalent to $2,136 in
   2021).^[33]^[4]^: 147-148, 180 Wozniak did not learn about the actual
   $5,000 bonus (equivalent to $30,521 in 2021) until ten years later.
   While dismayed, he said that if Jobs had told him about it and had said
   he needed the money, Wozniak would have given it to him.^[34]^: 104-107

   In 1975, Wozniak began designing and developing the computer that would
   eventually make him famous, the Apple I.^[35] With the Apple I, Wozniak
   was largely working to impress other members of the Palo Alto-based
   Homebrew Computer Club,^[36]^: 35-38 a local group of electronics
   hobbyists interested in computing. The club was one of several key
   centers which established the home hobbyist era, essentially creating
   the microcomputer industry over the next few decades. Unlike other
   custom Homebrew designs, the Apple had an easy-to-achieve video
   capability that drew a crowd when it was unveiled.^[37]

Apple formation and success[edit]

     Wozniak designed Apple's first products, the Apple I and II
     computers and he helped design the Macintosh -- because he wanted to
     use them and they didn't exist.

   -- CNBC retrospective^[38]

     Between Woz and Jobs, Woz was the innovator, the inventor. Steve
     Jobs was the marketing person.

   -- Apple employee #12 Daniel Kottke^[39]

     Everything I did at Apple that was an A+ job and that took us
     places, I had two things in my favor ... I had no money [and] I had
     had no training.

   -- Steve Wozniak in 2010^[38]

   Original 1976 Apple 1 computer in a briefcase, from the Sydney
   Powerhouse Museum collection

   By March 1, 1976, Wozniak completed the basic design of the Apple I
   computer.^[13]^: 5-6 He alone designed the hardware, circuit board
   designs, and operating system for the computer.^[37] Wozniak originally
   offered the design to HP while working there, but was denied by the
   company on five occasions.^[40] Jobs then advised Wozniak to start a
   business of their own to build and sell bare printed circuit boards of
   the Apple I.^[13]^: 4-6 ^[36]^: 35-38 Wozniak, at first skeptical, was
   later convinced by Jobs that even if they were not successful they
   could at least say to their grandchildren that they had had their own
   company. To raise the money they needed to build the first batch of the
   circuit boards, Wozniak sold his HP scientific calculator while Jobs
   sold his Volkswagen van.^[13]^: 4-6 ^[36]^: 35-38

   On April 1, 1976, Jobs and Wozniak formed the Apple Computer Company
   (now called Apple Inc.) along with administrative supervisor Ronald
   Wayne, whose participation in the new venture was short-lived. The two
   decided on the name "Apple" shortly after Jobs returned from Oregon and
   told Wozniak about his time spent on an apple orchard there.^[41]

   After the company was formed, Jobs and Wozniak made one last trip to
   the Homebrew Computer Club to give a presentation of the fully
   assembled version of the Apple I.^[36]^: 39-40 Paul Terrell, who was
   starting a new computer shop in Mountain View, California, called the
   Byte Shop,^[4] saw the presentation and was impressed by the
   machine.^[34]^: 66-67 Terrell told Jobs that he would order 50 units of
   the Apple I and pay $500 (equivalent to $2,381 in 2021) each on
   delivery, but only if they came fully assembled, as he was not
   interested in buying bare printed circuit boards.^[13]^: 7 ^[34]^:

   Together the duo assembled the first boards in Jobs's parents' Los
   Altos home; initially in his bedroom and later (when there was no space
   left) in the garage. Wozniak's apartment in San Jose was filled with
   monitors, electronic devices, and computer games that he had developed.
   The Apple I sold for $666.66. Wozniak later said he had no idea about
   the relation between the number and the mark of the beast, and that he
   came up with the price because he liked "repeating digits".^[42] They
   sold their first 50 system boards to Terrell later that
   year.^[clarification needed]

                             External image
   image icon Wozniak and Steve Jobs with an Apple I circuit board, c.

   In November 1976, Jobs and Wozniak received substantial funding from a
   then-semi-retired Intel product marketing manager and engineer named
   Mike Markkula.^[43]^[13]^: 10 At the request of Markkula, Wozniak
   resigned from his job at HP and became the vice president in charge of
   research and development at Apple. Wozniak's Apple I was similar to the
   Altair 8800, the first commercially available microcomputer, except the
   Apple I had no provision for internal expansion cards. With expansion
   cards, the Altair could attach to a computer terminal and be programmed
   in BASIC. In contrast, the Apple I was a hobbyist machine. Wozniak's
   design included a $25 CPU (MOS 6502) on a single circuit board with 256
   bytes of ROM, 4K or 8K bytes of RAM, and a 40-character by 24-row
   display controller. Apple's first computer lacked a case, power supply,
   keyboard, and display--all components that had to be provided by the
   user. Eventually about 200 Apple I computers were produced in

   An Apple II computer with an external modem

   After the success of the Apple I, Wozniak designed the Apple II, the
   first personal computer with the ability to display color graphics, and
   BASIC programming language built in.^[4] Inspired by "the technique
   Atari used to simulate colors on its first arcade games", Wozniak found
   a way of putting colors into the NTSC system by using a US$1 chip,^[45]
   while colors in the PAL system are achieved by "accident" when a dot
   occurs on a line, and he says that to this day he has no idea how it
   works.^[46] During the design stage, Jobs argued that the Apple II
   should have two expansion slots, while Wozniak wanted eight.^[4] After
   a heated argument, during which Wozniak threatened that Jobs should "go
   get himself another computer", they decided to go with eight slots.
   Jobs and Wozniak introduced the Apple II at the April 1977 West Coast
   Computer Faire. Wozniak's first article about the Apple II was in Byte
   magazine in May 1977.^[47] It became one of the first highly successful
   mass-produced personal computers in the world.

   Wozniak also designed the Disk II floppy disk drive, released in 1978
   specifically for use with the Apple II series to replace the slower
   cassette tape storage.

   In 1980, Apple went public to instant and significant financial
   profitability, making Jobs and Wozniak both millionaires. The Apple
   II's intended successor, the Apple III, released the same year, was a
   commercial failure and was discontinued in 1984. According to Wozniak,
   the Apple III "had 100 percent hardware failures", and that the primary
   reason for these failures was that the system was designed by Apple's
   marketing department, unlike Apple's previous engineering-driven

   An original Macintosh with hardware

   During the early design and development phase of the original
   Macintosh, Wozniak had a heavy influence over the project along with
   Jef Raskin, who conceived the computer. Later named the "Macintosh
   128k", it would become the first mass-market personal computer
   featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse. The Macintosh
   would also go on to introduce the desktop publishing industry with the
   addition of the Apple LaserWriter, the first laser printer to feature
   vector graphics.^[49] In a 2013 interview, Wozniak said that in 1981,
   "Steve [Jobs] really took over the project when I had a plane crash and
   wasn't there."^[8]^[7]

  Plane crash and temporary leave from Apple[edit]

   On February 7, 1981, the Beechcraft Bonanza A36TC which Wozniak was
   piloting (and not qualified to operate^[50]) crashed soon after takeoff
   from the Sky Park Airport in Scotts Valley, California.^[51] The
   airplane stalled while climbing, then bounced down the runway, broke
   through two fences, and crashed into an embankment. Wozniak and his
   three passengers--then-fiancee Candice Clark, her brother Jack Clark,
   and Jack's girlfriend, Janet Valleau--were injured. Wozniak sustained
   severe face and head injuries, including losing a tooth, and also
   suffered for the following five weeks from anterograde amnesia, the
   inability to create new memories. He had no memory of the crash, and
   did not remember his name while in the hospital or the things he did
   for a time after he was released.^[48]^[52] He would later state that
   Apple II computer games were what helped him regain his memory.^[4] The
   National Transportation Safety Board investigation report cited
   premature liftoff and pilot inexperience as probable causes of the
   crash.^[13]^: 28-30

   Wozniak did not immediately return to Apple after recovering from the
   airplane crash, seeing it as a good reason to leave.^[48] Infinite Loop
   characterized this time: "Coming out of the semi-coma had been like
   flipping a reset switch in Woz's brain. It was as if in his thirty-year
   old body he had regained the mind he'd had at eighteen before all the
   computer madness had begun. And when that happened, Woz found he had
   little interest in engineering or design. Rather, in an odd sort of
   way, he wanted to start over fresh."^[53]^: 322

  UC Berkeley and US Festivals[edit]

   Wozniak in 1983

   Later in 1981, after recovering from the plane crash, Wozniak
   re-enrolled at UC Berkeley to complete his Electrical Engineering and
   Computer Sciences degree that he started there back in 1971 (for which
   he would finish in 1986).^[54] Because his name was well known at this
   point, he enrolled under the name Rocky Raccoon Clark, which is the
   name listed on his diploma,^[8]^[9]^[55] although he did not officially
   receive his degree in electrical engineering and computer sciences
   until 1987.^[24]^[8]

   In May 1982 and 1983, Wozniak, with help from professional concert
   promoter Bill Graham, founded the company Unuson, an abbreviation of
   "unite us in song",^[56] which sponsored two US Festivals, with "US"
   pronounced like the pronoun, not as initials. Initially intended to
   celebrate evolving technologies, the festivals ended up as a technology
   exposition and a rock festival as a combination of music, computers,
   television, and people. After losing several million dollars on the
   1982 festival, Wozniak stated that unless the 1983 event turned a
   profit, he would end his involvement with rock festivals and get back
   to designing computers.^[57] Later that year, Wozniak returned to Apple
   product development, desiring no more of a role than that of an
   engineer and a motivational factor for the Apple workforce.^[4]^[53]^:

  Return to Apple product development[edit]

   Wozniak and Macintosh system software designer Andy Hertzfeld at an
   Apple User Group Connection meeting in 1985

   In the mid-1980s he designed the Apple Desktop Bus, a proprietary
   bit-serial peripheral bus that became the basis of all Macintosh and
   NeXT computer models.^[58]^[verification needed]^[59]

   Starting in the mid-1980s, as the Macintosh experienced slow but steady
   growth, Apple's corporate leadership, including Steve Jobs,
   increasingly disrespected its flagship cash cow Apple II series--and
   Wozniak along with it. The Apple II division--other than Wozniak--was
   not invited to the Macintosh introduction event, and Wozniak was seen
   kicking the dirt in the parking lot.^[60] Although Apple II products
   provided about 85% of Apple's sales in early 1985, the company's
   January 1985 annual meeting did not mention the Apple II division or
   its employees, a typical situation that frustrated Wozniak.^[61]

  Final departure from Apple workforce[edit]

   Even with the success he had helped to create at Apple, Wozniak
   believed that the company was hindering him from being who he wanted to
   be, and that it was "the bane of his existence".^[58] He enjoyed
   engineering, not management, and said that he missed "the fun of the
   early days".^[9] As other talented engineers joined the growing
   company, he no longer believed he was needed there, and by early 1985,
   Wozniak left Apple again, stating that the company had "been going in
   the wrong direction for the last five years". He then sold most of his

   The Apple II platform financially carried the company well into the
   Macintosh era of the late 1980s;^[61] it was made semi-portable with
   the Apple IIc of 1984, was extended, with some input from Wozniak, by
   the 16-bit Apple IIGS of 1986, and was discontinued altogether when the
   Apple IIe was discontinued on November 15, 1993 (although the Apple IIe
   card, which allowed compatible Macintosh computers to run Apple II
   software and use certain Apple II peripherals, was produced until May


   After his career at Apple, Wozniak founded CL 9 in 1985, which
   developed and brought the first programmable universal remote control
   to market in 1987, called the "CORE".^[4]

   Beyond engineering, Wozniak's second lifelong goal had always been to
   teach elementary school because of the important role teachers play in
   students' lives. Eventually, he did teach computer classes to children
   from the fifth through ninth grades, and teachers as well.^[55]^[58]
   Unuson continued to support this, funding additional teachers and

   In 2001, Wozniak founded Wheels of Zeus (WOZ)^[62] to create wireless
   GPS technology to "help everyday people find everyday things much more
   easily". In 2002, he joined the board of directors of Ripcord Networks,
   Inc., joining Apple alumni Ellen Hancock, Gil Amelio, Mike Connor, and
   Wheels of Zeus co-founder Alex Fielding in a new telecommunications
   venture. Later the same year he joined the board of directors of
   Danger, Inc., the maker of the Hip Top.

   In 2006, Wheels of Zeus was closed, and Wozniak founded Acquicor
   Technology, a holding company for acquiring technology companies and
   developing them, with Apple alumni Hancock and Amelio. From 2009
   through 2014 he was chief scientist at Fusion-io.^[63] In 2014 he
   became chief scientist at Primary Data, which was founded by some
   former Fusion-io executives.^[64]

   Silicon Valley Comic Con (SVCC) is an annual pop culture and technology
   convention at the San Jose McEnery Convention Center in San Jose,
   California. The convention was co-founded by Wozniak and Rick White,
   with Trip Hunter as CEO.^[65] Wozniak announced the annual event in
   2015 along with Marvel legend Stan Lee.^[66]

   In October 2017, Wozniak founded Woz U, an online educational
   technology service for independent students and employees.^[67] As of
   December 2018, Woz U was licensed as a school with the Arizona state

   Though permanently leaving Apple as an active employee in 1985, Wozniak
   chose to never remove himself from the official employee list, and
   continues to represent the company at events or in interviews.^[9]
   Today he receives a stipend from Apple for this role, estimated in 2006
   to be US$120,000 per year.^[4]^[9]^[69] He is also an Apple
   shareholder.^[70] He maintained a friendly acquaintance with Steve Jobs
   until Jobs's death in October 2011.^[71] However, in 2006, Wozniak
   stated that he and Jobs were not as close as they used to be.^[72] In a
   2013 interview, Wozniak said that the original Macintosh "failed" under
   Steve Jobs, and that it was not until Jobs left that it became a
   success. He called the Apple Lisa group the team that had kicked Jobs
   out, and that Jobs liked to call the Lisa group "idiots for making [the
   Lisa computer] too expensive". To compete with the Lisa, Jobs and his
   new team produced a cheaper computer, one that, according to Wozniak,
   was "weak", "lousy" and "still at a fairly high price". "He made it by
   cutting the RAM down, by forcing you to swap disks here and there",
   says Wozniak. He attributed the eventual success of the Macintosh to
   people like John Sculley "who worked to build a Macintosh market when
   the Apple II went away".^[7]

   At the end of 2020, Wozniak announced the launch of a new company
   helmed by him, Efforce. Efforce is described as a marketplace for
   funding ecologically friendly projects. It used a WOZX cryptocurrency
   token for funding and blockchain to redistribute the profit to token
   holders and businesses engaged on the platform.^[73] In its first week
   trading, the WOZX cryptocurrency token increased 1,400%.^[74]

   In September 2021, it was reported that Wozniak was also starting a
   company alongside co-founder Alex Fielding named Privateer Space to
   address the problem of space debris.^[75]^[76] Privateer Space debuted
   the first version of their space traffic monitoring software on March
   1, 2022.^[77]


   Wozniak at Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre, Australia, 2012

   Wozniak is listed as the sole inventor on the following Apple patents:
     * US Patent No. 4,136,359: "Microcomputer for use with video
       display"^[78]--for which he was inducted into the National
       Inventors Hall of Fame.
     * US Patent No. 4,210,959: "Controller for magnetic disc, recorder,
       or the like"^[79]
     * US Patent No. 4,217,604: "Apparatus for digitally controlling PAL
       color display"^[80]
     * US Patent No. 4,278,972: "Digitally-controlled color signal
       generation means for use with display"^[81]


   In 1990, Wozniak helped found the Electronic Frontier Foundation,
   providing some of the organization's initial funding^[82]^[83]^[84] and
   serving on its founding Board of Directors.^[82] He is the founding
   sponsor of the Tech Museum, Silicon Valley Ballet and Children's
   Discovery Museum of San Jose.^[8] Also since leaving Apple, Wozniak has
   provided all the money, and much onsite technical support, for the
   technology program in his local school district in Los Gatos.^[4]
   Un.U.Son. (Unite Us In Song), an organization Wozniak formed to
   organize the two US festivals, is now primarily tasked with supporting
   his educational and philanthropic projects.^[4]^[56] In 1986, Wozniak
   lent his name to the Stephen G. Wozniak Achievement Awards (popularly
   known as "Wozzie Awards"), which he presented to six Bay Area high
   school and college students for their innovative use of computers in
   the fields of business, art, and music.^[85] Wozniak is the subject of
   a student-made film production of his friend's (Joe Patane) nonprofit
   Dream Camp Foundation for high-level-need youth entitled Camp Woz: The
   Admirable Lunacy of Philanthropy.^[86]

Honors and awards[edit]

   Wozniak speaking at a conference in Paradise Valley, Arizona in 2017

   Because of his lifetime of achievements, multiple organizations have
   given Wozniak awards and recognition, including:
     * In 1979, Wozniak was awarded the ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award. In
       1985, both he and Steve Jobs received the National Medal of
       Technology from US President Ronald Reagan.^[4]
     * Later he donated funds to create the "Woz Lab" at the University of
       Colorado at Boulder. In 1998, he was named a Fellow of the Computer
       History Museum "for co-founding Apple Computer and inventing the
       Apple I personal computer."^[87]
     * In September 2000, Wozniak was inducted into the National Inventors
       Hall of Fame,^[88] and in 2001 he was awarded the 7th Annual Heinz
       Award for Technology, the Economy and Employment.^[89]
     * The American Humanist Association awarded him the Isaac Asimov
       Science Award in 2011.
     * In 2004, Wozniak was given the 5th Annual Telluride Tech Festival
       Award of Technology.^[90]
     * He was awarded the Global Award of the President of Armenia for
       Outstanding Contribution to Humanity Through IT in 2011.^[91]
     * On February 17, 2014, in Los Angeles, Wozniak was awarded the 66th
       Hoover Medal from IEEE President & CEO J. Roberto de Marca.^[92]
       The award is presented to an engineer whose professional
       achievements and personal endeavors have advanced the well-being of
       humankind and is administered by a board representing five
       engineering organizations: The American Society of Mechanical
       Engineers; the American Society of Civil Engineers; the American
       Institute of Chemical Engineers; the American Institute of Mining,
       Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers; and Institute of Electrical
       and Electronics Engineers.^[93]
     * The New York City Chapter of Young Presidents' Organization
       presented their 2014 Lifetime Achievement Award to Wozniak on
       October 16, 2014, at the American Museum of Natural History.^[94]
     * In November 2014, Industry Week added Wozniak to the Manufacturing
       Hall of Fame.^[95]
     * On June 19, 2015, Wozniak received the Legacy for Children Award
       from the Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose. The Legacy for
       Children Award honors an individual whose legacy has significantly
       benefited the learning and lives of children. The purpose of the
       Award is to focus Silicon Valley's attention on the needs of our
       children, encouraging us all to take responsibility for their
       well-being. Candidates are nominated by a committee of notable
       community members involved in children's education, health care,
       human and social services, and the arts.^[96] The city of San Jose
       named a street "Woz Way" in his honor. The street address of the
       Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose is 180 Woz Way.
     * On June 20, 2015, The Cal Alumni Association (UC Berkeley's Alumni
       Association) presented Wozniak with the 2015 Alumnus of the Year
       Award. "We are honored to recognize Steve Wozniak with CAA's most
       esteemed award", said CAA President Cynthia So Schroeder '91. "His
       invaluable contributions to education and to UC Berkeley place him
       among Cal's most accomplished and respected alumni."^[97]
     * In March 2016, High Point University announced that Wozniak will
       serve as their Innovator in Residence. Wozniak was High Point
       University's commencement speaker in 2013. Through this ongoing
       partnership, Wozniak will connect with High Point University
       students on a variety of topics and make campus-visits

   Paul Allen and Wozniak at the Living Computer Museum in 2017

     * In March 2017, Wozniak was listed by UK-based company Richtopia at
       number 18 on its list of the 200 Most Influential Philanthropists
       and Social Entrepreneurs.^[100]^[101]
     * Wozniak is the 2021 recipient of the IEEE Masaru Ibuka Consumer
       Electronics Award "for pioneering the design of consumer-friendly
       personal computers."^[102]

  Honorary degrees[edit]

   For his contributions to technology, Wozniak has been awarded a number
   of Honorary Doctor of Engineering degrees, which include the following:
     * University of Colorado Boulder: 1989^[20]^[103]
     * North Carolina State University: 2004^[104]
     * Kettering University: 2005^[105]^[106]
     * Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale: 2005^[107]
     * ESPOL University in Ecuador: 2008^[108]^[failed verification]
     * Michigan State University, in East Lansing 2011^[109]^[110]
     * Concordia University in Montreal, Canada: June 22, 2011^[111]
     * State Engineering University of Armenia: November 11, 2011^[112]
     * Santa Clara University: June 16, 2012^[113]^[114]
     * University Camilo Jose Cela in Madrid, Spain: November 8,

In media[edit]

   Steve Wozniak has been mentioned, represented, or interviewed countless
   times in media from the founding of Apple to the present. Wired
   magazine described him as a person of "tolerant, ingenuous self-esteem"
   who interviews with "a nonstop, singsong voice".^[56]


     * Steve Jobs: The Man in the Machine (2015)
     * Camp Woz: The Admirable Lunacy of Philanthropy - a 2009
     * Geeks On Board - a 2007 documentary^[117]
     * The Secret History of Hacking - a 2001 documentary film featuring
       Wozniak and other phreakers and computer hackers.^[118]^[119]
     * Triumph of the Nerds - a 1996 PBS documentary series about the rise
       of the personal computer.
     * Steve Wozniak's Formative Moment - a March 15, 2016, original short
       feature film from Reddit Formative Moment^[120]

  Feature films[edit]

   Wozniak and Joey Slotnick (left), who portrayed him in the 1999 film
   Pirates of Silicon Valley

     * 1999: Pirates of Silicon Valley - a TNT film directed by Martyn
       Burke. Wozniak is portrayed by Joey Slotnick while Jobs is played
       by Noah Wyle.^[121]
     * 2013: Jobs  - a film directed by Joshua Michael Stern. Wozniak is
       portrayed by Josh Gad, while Jobs is portrayed by Ashton
     * 2015: Steve Jobs  - a feature film by Danny Boyle, with a
       screenplay written by Aaron Sorkin. Wozniak is portrayed by Seth
       Rogen, while Jobs is portrayed by Michael Fassbender.^[121]^[122]
     * 2015: Steve Jobs vs. Bill Gates: The Competition to Control the
       Personal Computer, 1974-1999: Original film from the National
       Geographic Channel for the American Genius series.^[123]


     * TechTV - The Screen Savers 2002-09-27 (Steve Wozniak and Kevin
       Mitnik a convicted hacker) Featuring an interview with Adrian Lamo
     * After seeing her stand-up performance in Saratoga, California,
       Wozniak began dating comedian Kathy Griffin.^[124] Together, they
       attended the 2007 Emmy Awards,^[125] and subsequently made many
       appearances on the fourth season of her show Kathy Griffin: My Life
       on the D-List. Wozniak is on the show as her date for the Producers
       Guild of America award show. However, on a June 19, 2008 appearance
       on The Howard Stern Show, Griffin confirmed that they were no
       longer dating and decided to remain friends.^[126]
     * Wozniak portrays a parody of himself in the first episode of the
       television series Code Monkeys; he plays the owner of Gameavision
       before selling it to help fund his next enterprise.^[127]^[128] He
       later appears again in the 12th episode when he is in Las Vegas at
       the annual Video Game Convention and sees Dave and Jerry. He also
       appears in a parody of the "Get a Mac" ads featured in the final
       episode of Code Monkeys second season. Wozniak is also interviewed
       and featured in the documentary Hackers Wanted and on the BBC.
     * Wozniak competed on Season 8 of Dancing with the Stars in
       2009^[129]^[130] where he danced with Karina Smirnoff. Though
       Wozniak and Smirnoff received 10 combined points from the three
       judges out of 30, the lowest score of the evening, he remained in
       the competition. He later posted on a social networking site that
       he believed that the vote count was not legitimate and suggested
       that the Dancing with the Stars judges had lied about the vote
       count to keep him on the show.^[131] After being briefed on the
       method of judging and vote counting, he retracted and apologized
       for his statements.^[132] Though suffering a pulled hamstring and a
       fracture in his foot, Wozniak continued to compete,^[133] but was
       eliminated from the competition on March 31, with a score of 12 out
       of 30 for an Argentine Tango.^[134]
     * On September 30, 2010, he appeared as himself on The Big Bang
       Theory season 4 episode "The Cruciferous Vegetable
       Amplification".^[135] While dining in The Cheesecake Factory where
       Penny works, he is approached by Sheldon via telepresence on a
       Texai robot. Leonard tries to explain to Penny who Wozniak is, but
       she says she already knows him from Dancing with the Stars.
     * On September 30, 2013, he appeared along with early Apple employees
       Daniel Kottke and Andy Hertzfeld on the television show John Wants
       Answers to discuss the movie Jobs.^[136]
     * In April 2021, Wozniak became a panelist for the new TV series
       Unicorn Hunters,^[137] a business investment show from the makers
       of the series The Masked Singer.^[138]^[139]

Views on artificial superintelligence[edit]

   In March 2015, Wozniak stated that while he had originally dismissed
   Ray Kurzweil's opinion that machine intelligence would outpace human
   intelligence within several decades, Wozniak had changed his mind:

     I agree that the future is scary and very bad for people. If we
     build these devices to take care of everything for us, eventually
     they'll think faster than us and they'll get rid of the slow humans
     to run companies more efficiently.

   Wozniak stated that he had started to identify a contradictory sense of
   foreboding about artificial intelligence, while still supporting the
   advance of technology.^[140] By June 2015, Wozniak changed his mind
   again, stating that a superintelligence takeover would be good for

     They're going to be smarter than us and if they're smarter than us
     then they'll realise they need us ... We want to be the family pet
     and be taken care of all the time ... I got this idea a few years
     ago and so I started feeding my dog filet steak and chicken every
     night because 'do unto others'.^[141]^[142]

   In 2016, Wozniak changed his mind again, stating that he no longer
   worried about the possibility of superintelligence emerging because he
   is skeptical that computers will be able to compete with human
   "intuition": "A computer could figure out a logical endpoint decision,
   but that's not the way intelligence works in humans". Wozniak added
   that if computers do become superintelligent, "they're going to be
   partners of humans over all other species just

Personal life[edit]

   Wozniak and then-girlfriend Kathy Griffin in 2008

   Wozniak signs a Modbook at Macworld Expo in 2009

   Wozniak lives in Los Gatos, California. He applied for Australian
   citizenship in 2012, and has stated that he would like to live in
   Melbourne, Australia in the future.^[146] Wozniak has been referred to
   frequently by the nickname "Woz", or "The Woz"; he has also been called
   "The Wonderful Wizard of Woz" and "The Second Steve" (in regard to his
   early business partner and longtime friend, Steve Jobs).^[147] "WoZ"
   (short for "Wheels of Zeus") is the name of a company Wozniak founded
   in 2002; it closed in 2006.^[148]

   Wozniak describes his impetus for joining the Freemasons in 1979 as
   being able to spend more time with his then-wife, Alice Robertson, who
   belonged to the Order of the Eastern Star, associated with the Masons.
   Wozniak has said that he quickly rose to a third degree Freemason
   because, whatever he does, he tries to do well. He was initiated in
   1979 at Charity Lodge No. 362 in Campbell, California, now part of Mt.
   Moriah Lodge No. 292 in Los Gatos.^[149] Today he is no longer
   involved: "I did become a Freemason and know what it's about but it
   doesn't really fit my tech/geek personality. Still, I can be polite to
   others from other walks of life. After our divorce was filed I never
   attended again but I did contribute enough for a lifetime

   Wozniak was married to slalom canoe gold-medalist Candice Clark from
   June 1981 to 1987. They have three children together, the youngest
   being born after their divorce was finalized.^[151]^[152] After a
   high-profile relationship with actress Kathy Griffin, who described him
   on Tom Green's House Tonight in 2008 as "the biggest techno-nerd in the
   Universe", Wozniak married Janet Hill, his current spouse.^[153]

   On his religious views, Wozniak has called himself an "atheist or

   He is a member of a Segway Polo team, the Silicon Valley
   Aftershocks,^[156] and is considered a "super fan" of the NHL ice
   hockey team San Jose Sharks.^[157]

   In 2006, he co-authored with Gina Smith his autobiography, iWoz: From
   Computer Geek to Cult Icon: How I Invented the Personal Computer,
   Co-Founded Apple, and Had Fun Doing It. The book made The New York
   Times Best Seller list.^[8]

   Wozniak's favorite video game is Tetris for Game Boy,^[158] and he had
   a high score for Sabotage.^[159] In the 1990s he submitted so many high
   scores for Tetris to Nintendo Power that they would no longer print his
   scores, so he started sending them in under the reversed name "Evets
   Kainzow".^[160] Prior to the release of Game Boy, Wozniak called Gran
   Trak 10 his "favorite game ever" and said that he played the arcade
   game while developing hardware for the first version of Breakout for
   Atari.^[34]^: 103-104 ^[161] In 1985, Steve Jobs referred to Wozniak as
   a Gran Trak 10 "addict".^[162]

   Wozniak has expressed his personal disdain for money and accumulating
   large amounts of wealth. He told Fortune magazine in 2017, "I didn't
   want to be near money, because it could corrupt your values ... I
   really didn't want to be in that super 'more than you could ever need'
   category." He also said that he only invests in things "close to his
   heart". When Apple first went public in 1980, Wozniak offered
   $10 million of his own stock to early Apple employees, something Jobs
   refused to do.^[163]

   Wozniak has the condition prosopagnosia (face blindness).^[164]

   He has expressed support for the electronics right to repair movement.
   In July 2021, Wozniak made a Cameo video in response to right to repair
   activist Louis Rossmann, in which he described the issue as something
   that has "really affected me emotionally", and credited Apple's early
   breakthroughs to open technology of the 1970s.^[165]^[166]

See also[edit]

     * San Francisco Bay Area portal

     * Apple IIGS (limited edition case molded with Woz's signature)
     * Group coded recording (encoding methods for representing data)
     * Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (1984 book)
     * Woz Challenge Cup (segway polo world championship)


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   Honorary Degrees.

     ^ "Commencement Coverage". Kettering University. Retrieved February
   11, 2016.

     ^ Honorary Doctorate -- Kettering University List of Honorary
   Degrees. Archived November 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine

     ^ "NSU Commencement Programs". Nova Southeastern University.
   Retrieved April 9, 2017.

     ^ "Steve Wozniak Speaker Profile". Speakers Associates. Retrieved
   April 9, 2017.

     ^ MSU convocation speaker and honorary degree recipient Steve
   Wozniak, Spring 2011, Michigan State University, May 9, 2011, archived
   from the original on October 28, 2021, retrieved February 11, 2016 -
   via YouTube

     ^ "Commencement | MSU Commencement". Commencement.msu.edu. Retrieved
   March 22, 2013.

     ^ "Honorary degree citation -Steve Wozniak". Concordia University.
   Retrieved February 9, 2016.

     ^ "Steve Wozniak Awarded Honorary Doctoral Degree - Hetq - News,
   Articles, Investigations". hetq.am. Retrieved February 27, 2017.

     ^ "June 2012 - 2012 - Press Releases - News & Events - Santa Clara
   University". Santa Clara University. Retrieved February 11, 2016.

     ^ "Woz's Wisdom to the Santa Clara University Class of 2012".
   www.scu.edu. Santa Clara University. Retrieved August 8, 2020.

     ^ "Honorary Doctorates - Universidad Camilo Jose Cela". Universidad
   Camilo Jose Cela. Retrieved March 22, 2016.

     ^ Camp Woz: The Admirable Lunacy of Philanthropy at IMDb

     ^ Geeks On Board at IMDb

     ^ "The Secret History of Hacking". theblackpacket.com. August 10,
   2015. Retrieved August 8, 2020.

     ^ "15 Best Documentaries About Hacking And Hackers You Should Watch".
   TechLog360. May 11, 2020. Retrieved August 8, 2020.

     ^ "Steve Wozniak's Formative Moment". Reddit. March 15, 2016.
   Archived from the original on October 28, 2021. Retrieved February 27,
   2017 - via YouTube.

     ^ ^a ^b ^c Ebiri, Bilge (October 7, 2015). "Ranking the Actors Who
   Played Steve Wozniak, From Worst to Best". Vulture. Retrieved August 8,

     ^ Sakoui, Anousha; Palmeri, Christopher (July 2, 2015). "Wozniak Says
   Scene in Jobs Trailer Is Fiction, Loves It Anyway". www.bloomberg.com.
   Retrieved August 8, 2020.

     ^ "American Genius". Archived from the original on September 10,

     ^ Collins, Michelle. "VH1 Best Week Ever -- Off The Market: Kathy
   Griffin Finds a New Man!". Archived from the original on August 20,
   2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.

     ^ "Apple Co-Founder Steve Wozniak Escorted Comedian Kathy Griffin &
   Her Potty Mouth To The Emmy's". Archived from the original on December
   17, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.()

     ^ Who's so vain? June 19, 2008 -- The Howard Stern Show. Archived
   November 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine

     ^ "Code Monkeys: The Woz". TV.com. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved
   August 8, 2020.

     ^ Harris, Will. "Code Monkeys: Season 1 DVD review".
   www.bullzeye.com. Retrieved August 8, 2020.

     ^ "Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak to compete on 'Dancing With the
   Stars'". Los Angeles Times. February 8, 2009. Retrieved on February 8,

     ^ "Why Apple founders got 'fired up.'". BBC News. November 21, 2008.
   Retrieved February 5, 2009.

     ^ Matyszczyk, Chris (March 17, 2009). "Woz in ABC 'outright lie'
   accusation". CNET.

     ^ Fashingbauer Cooper, Gael (March 19, 2009). "Wozniak sorry he
   called 'Dancing' show 'fake'". Today.com.

     ^ Injured Woz Will Perform Archived March 25, 2009, at the Wayback
   Machine People, March 23, 2009.

     ^ Woz Gets Hipchecked Off the Dance Floor, by Kara Swisher, April 1,
   2009, All Things Digital.

     ^ Busch, Jenna (October 1, 2010). "The Big Bang Theory: "The
   Cruciferous Vegetable Amplification" Review". IGN. Retrieved August 8,

     ^ Vink, John (October 1, 2013). "The Cast of Jobs". John Wants
   Answers. KMVT 15.

     ^ "Unicorn Hunters".

     ^ "MarketWatch - The new TV show 'Unicorn Hunters' will feature Steve
   Wozniak and allow viewers to invest in pre-IPO companies".

     ^ "Realscreen - "The Masked Singer" producer Smart Dog Media preps
   "Unicorn Hunters"".

     ^ Holley, Peter (March 24, 2015). "Apple co-founder on artificial
   intelligence: 'The future is scary and very bad for people'".
   Washington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2018.

     ^ Gibbs, Samuel (June 25, 2015). "Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak says
   humans will be robots' pets". The Guardian. Retrieved January 7, 2018.

     ^ Dowd, Maureen (April 2017). "Elon Musk's Billion-Dollar Crusade to
   Stop the A.I. Apocalypse". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 7, 2018.

     ^ "Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak dismisses AI concerns raised by
   Stephen Hawking and Nick Bostrom". Business Insider. October 9, 2016.
   Retrieved January 7, 2018.

     ^ Stockton, Nick (April 19, 2017). "How Steve Wozniak Got Over His
   Fear of Robots Turning People Into Pets". Wired. Retrieved January 7,

     ^ "Elon Musk says AI could doom human civilization. Zuckerberg
   disagrees. Who's right?". USA Today. January 2, 2018. Retrieved January
   7, 2018.

     ^ Hopewell, Luke (September 25, 2012). "Steve Wozniak Is Becoming An
   Australian Citizen". Gizmodo. Retrieved June 12, 2014.

     ^ Mulligan, Sean. "Steve "The Woz" Wozniak: 2011 Isaac Asimoz Science
   Award". American Humanist Association. Archived from the original on
   September 13, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2012.

     ^ Kanellos, Michael. "Wozniak shuts down Wheels of Zeus". CNET.
   Retrieved August 8, 2020.

     ^ "A Few Famous Masons". Grand Lodge of British Columbia and the
   Yukon. Retrieved March 25, 2013.

     ^ "Ask Steve Wozniak Anything". Slashdot. October 1, 2012. Retrieved
   October 25, 2018.

     ^ "This Week in Apple History - June 7-13: The Woz Marries, Switcher
   Campaign Starts, IE Ended". The Mac Observer. June 13, 2004. Retrieved
   November 28, 2012.

     ^ "Wizard of Woz". People. Retrieved April 9, 2018.

     ^ "'I'm in trouble' says Woz's wife". Fortune. Retrieved February 27,

     ^ Wozniak, Steve (2002). "Letters-General Questions Answered".
   Woz.org. Los Gatos, California. Archived from the original on April 23,
   2016. Retrieved November 22, 2017. "I am also atheist or agnostic (I
   don't even know the difference). I've never been to church and prefer
   to think for myself. I do believe that religions stand for good things,
   and that if you make irrational sacrifices for a religion, then
   everyone can tell that your religion is important to you and can trust
   that your most important inner faiths are strong."

     ^ Brian Riley (2012). "Interview with Steve Wozniak". Davis,
   California: BrianRiley.us. Retrieved August 17, 2014. "I'm kind of
   spiritual inside. I have a lot of philosophies of how to be a good
   person, how to treat people, and I've worked them out, thinking over
   and over, reflecting inside my mind the way shy people do, and I was
   very shy, and coming up with my own little keys and rules for life, and
   they stayed with me".

     ^ Dobush, Grace (July 23, 2015). "Steve Wozniak played in this year's
   Segway polo world championships". Quartz. Retrieved May 20, 2020.

     ^ 'This may be the year': San Jose Sharks super fan Steve Wozniak
   gives take on Game 2 vs. St Louis Blues May 2019

     ^ "Woz and I agree: 'Tetris' for the Gameboy is the best game ever,
   by Daniel Terdiman, December 11, 2007, Geek Gestalt on CNET News.

     ^ "High Scores". Softline. September 1981. p. 28. Retrieved July 13,

     ^ Wozniak, Steve (January 3, 2018). "Evets Kainzow". Woz.org.

     ^ Edwards, Benj (May 4, 2007). "Woz Was Here - Steve Wozniak On His
   Gaming Past". Gamasutra.

     ^ Murphy, Conor (May 30, 2012). "The History of Breakout". Big Fish

     ^ Martin, Emmie (April 21, 2017). "Why Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak
   doesn't trust money". CNBC.

     ^ Kelion, Leo (September 9, 2015). "Steve Wozniak: Shocked and amazed
   by Steve Jobs movie". BBC. Retrieved August 22, 2015.

     ^ "Apple founder Steve Wozniak backs right-to-repair movement". BBC
   News. July 8, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.

     ^ "Steve Wozniak Voices Strong Support for the Growing Right to
   Repair Movement". Gizmodo. July 8, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2021.


    1. ^ There is also some debate that his surname could be Ukrainian,
       though it has not been accurately
       verified.^[17]^[better source needed]

External links[edit]

   Wikimedia Commons has media related to Steve Wozniak.

   Wikiquote has quotations related to Steve Wozniak.

     * Official website Edit this at Wikidata
     * Steve Wozniak @ Andy Hertzfeld's The Original Macintosh
     * Steve Wozniak at IMDb

   "Steve Wozniak on the Early Days of Apple". YouTube. Berkeley Haas.
   December 24, 2008.

     "Prof. Alan Brown interviews Steve Wozniak". YouTube. University of
   Surrey. June 13, 2013.

     "Steve Wozniak Debunks One of Apple's Biggest Myths". YouTube.
   Bloomberg Quicktake. December 3, 2014.

     "Machine That Changed The World The Interview with Steve Wozniak 1992
   V 7CCEDE8F8CE246889EBAAB8BCB2225". YouTube. Taras Berezhnic'kij.
   February 18, 2018.

     "Steve Wozniak On Steve Jobs, Apple's Early Days". YouTube. CNBC.
   January 24, 2019.

     "Steve Wozniak: How Steve Jobs would react if he could see Apple
   today". YouTube. Dagbladet Bo/rsen. November 21, 2019.

     "Why Steve Wozniak Is Suing You Tube". YouTube. Bloomberg Technology.
   July 23, 2020. "Jul.23 -- Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Wozniak says
   YouTube has for months allowed scammers to use his name and likeness as
   part of a phony bitcoin giveaway. He speaks with Bloomberg's Emily

     "Steve Wozniak speaks on Right to Repair". YouTube. Repair
   Preservation Group. July 7, 2021.


     * Edwards, Jim (December 26, 2013). "These Pictures Of Apple's First
       Employees Are Absolutely Wonderful", Business Insider
     * "Macintosh creators rekindle the 'Twiggy Mac'". CNET
     * "Twiggy Lives! At the Computer Museum: Happiness is a good friend -
       Woz and Rod Holt". The Twiggy Mac Pages

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