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Propaganda techniques

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   Methods of mind manipulation, many of which are based on logical
   Anti-capitalist propaganda

   A number of propaganda techniques based on social psychological
   research are used to generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques
   can be classified as logical fallacies, since propagandists use
   arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid.
   [ ]


     * 1 General character
          + 1.1 Definition
          + 1.2 Classification
          + 1.3 Manipulation and media
          + 1.4 Psychological aspects
          + 1.5 Logic and rhetoric
     * 2 Specific techniques
     * 3 See also
     * 4 References

General character[edit]


   Garth S. Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell define Propaganda as the
   "deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate
   cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the
   desired intent of the propagandist.^[1] Harold D. Laswell's definition
   targets even more precisely the technical aspect:

     "Propaganda in the broadest sense is the technique of influencing
     human action by the manipulation of representations. These
     representations may take spoken, written, pictorial or musical

   Manipulation can be organized or unorganized, conscious or unconscious,
   politically or socially motivated. The concept reaches from systematic
   state propaganda to manipulate public opinion (Edward Bernays) to
   "sociological propaganda" (propaganda of integration),^[3] where the
   unconscious desire to be manipulated and self manipulation leads the
   individual to adapt to the socially expected thoughts and behaviours
   (Jacques Ellul).^[4]

   The transition from non-propaganda to propaganda is fluid. Effective
   manipulation presupposes non-manipulative embedding in order to unfold
   its effect, which is why the reference to these contexts is not yet a
   refutation of the manipulative character of an act of


   Propaganda is understood as a form of manipulation of public opinion.
   The semiotic manipulation of signs is the essential characteristic
   ("Propaganda is a major form of manipulation by symbols" ).^[5]

   Thus, propaganda is a special form of communication, which is studied
   in communication research, and especially in media impact research,
   focusing on media manipulation.^[6] Propaganda is a particular type of
   communication characterized by distorting the representation of

Manipulation and media[edit]

   Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports,
   government reports, historical revision, junk science, books, leaflets,
   movies, social media, radio, television, and posters. Less common
   nowadays are the cow post envelopes, examples of which have survived
   from the time of the American Civil War. (Connecticut Historical
   Society; Civil War Collections; Covers.) In the case of radio and
   television, propaganda can exist on news, current-affairs or talk-show
   segments, as advertising or public-service announcement "spots" or as
   long-running advertorials. Propaganda campaigns often follow a
   strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This
   may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a
   plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain
   directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line,
   radio program, etc. The strategy intends to initiate the individual
   from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement,
   and then from information seeker to opinion leader through

   Information dissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies
   when coupled with propagandistic messages. Identifying these messages
   is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those
   messages are spread.
   "Comrade Lenin Cleanses the Earth of Filth" by Viktor Deni. November
   Propaganda to urge immigrants to move to California, 1876

Psychological aspects[edit]

   Some techniques are categorized, analyzed and interpreted
   psychologically, within political psychology, especially mass
   psychology,^[8] social psychology, and cognitive psychology, which
   includes the study of cognitive distortions.

   With regard to political and military conflicts, propaganda is seen as
   part of psychological warfare and information warfare,^[9] which gain
   particular importance in the era of hybrid warfare and

Logic and rhetoric[edit]

   Some techniques are classified as logical fallacies, because propaganda
   uses arguments which may have psychological effects but which are
   logically invalid.^[11]^[12]^[13]^[14]^[15]

   In rhetoric and dialectic, they are viewed as sophisms, ruses, and
   eristic stratagems.

Specific techniques[edit]

   Scholars have identified many standard techniques used in propaganda
   and persuasion.^[16]

   Ad hominem
          A Latin phrase that has come to mean attacking one's opponent,
          as opposed to attacking their arguments.

   Ad nauseam
          This uses tireless repetition of an idea. An idea, especially a
          simple slogan, that is repeated enough times, may begin to be
          taken as the truth. This approach is more effective alongside
          the propagandist limiting or controlling the media.

   Agenda setting
          Agenda setting means the "ability [of the news media] to
          influence the importance placed on the topics of the public
          agenda".^[17] If a news item is covered frequently and
          prominently, the audience will regard the issue as more

   Appeal to authority
          Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a
          position, idea, argument, or course of action.

   Appeal to fear
          Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling anxieties
          and panic in the general population, for example, Joseph
          Goebbels exploited Theodore Kaufman's Germany Must Perish! to
          claim that the Allies sought the extermination of the German

   Appeal to prejudice
          Using loaded or emotive terms to attach value or moral goodness
          to believing the proposition.

          Bandwagon and "inevitable-victory" appeals attempt to persuade
          the target audience to join in and take the course of action
          that "everyone else is taking."

          + Inevitable victory: invites those not already on the bandwagon
            to join those already on the road to certain victory. Those
            already or at least partially on the bandwagon are reassured
            that staying aboard is their best course of action. (e.g.,
            "The debate is over. Nearly everyone who matters agrees with
          + Join the crowd: This technique reinforces people's natural
            desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to
            convince the audience that a program is an expression of an
            irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best
            interest to join.

   "Getting What He Deserves" American anti-Catholic cartoon from Heroes
   of the Fiery Cross 1928.

   Beautiful people
          The type of propaganda that deals with famous people or depicts
          attractive, happy people. This suggests if people buy a product
          or follow a certain ideology, they too will be happy or
          successful. (This is used more in advertising for products,
          instead of political reasons.) Usually for advertising rather
          than political purposes, sexual arousal may also be used. For
          example, a message promoting a brand of motorcycles to a male
          target audience may also include sexually attractive bikini-clad
          women within the advertisement, to make the product more
          appealing to the audience by targeting sexual desires. However,
          some evidence suggests that using sexual appeal to sell a
          product may not succeed, as the target audience may focus too
          much on the sexually appealing people in the advertisement
          rather than the product itself.^[18]

   Big lie
          The repeated articulation of a complex of events that justify
          subsequent action. The descriptions of these events have
          elements of truth, and the "big lie" generalizations merge and
          eventually supplant the public's accurate perception of the
          underlying events. After World War I the German stab in the back
          explanation of the cause of their defeat became a justification
          for Nazi re-militarization and revanchism.

   Black-and-white fallacy
          Presenting only two choices, with the product or idea being
          propagated as the better choice. (e.g., "You're either with us,
          or against us....")

   Cherry picking
          Richard Crossman, the British Deputy Director of Psychological
          Warfare Division (PWD) for the Supreme Headquarters Allied
          Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) during the Second World War said "In
          propaganda truth pays... It is a complete delusion to think of
          the brilliant propagandist as being a professional liar. The
          brilliant propagandist is the man who tells the truth, or that
          selection of the truth which is requisite for his purpose, and
          tells it in such a way that the recipient does not think he is
          receiving any propaganda... [...] The art of propaganda is not
          telling lies, but rather selecting the truth you require and
          giving it mixed up with some truths the audience wants to

   Classical conditioning
          All vertebrates, including humans, respond to classical
          conditioning. That is, if A is always present when B is present
          and B causes a physical reaction (e.g. disgust, pleasure), then
          when presented with object A in the absence of B, that same
          reaction will be experienced.

   Cognitive dissonance
          People desire to be consistent. Suppose a pollster finds that a
          certain group of people hates his candidate for senator but
          loves actor A. They use actor A's endorsement of their candidate
          to change people's minds because people cannot tolerate
          inconsistency. They are forced to either dislike the actor or
          like the candidate.

   Common man
          The "plain folks" or "common man" approach attempts to convince
          the audience that the propagandist's positions reflect the
          common sense of the people. It is designed to win the confidence
          of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style
          of the target audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and
          mannerisms (and clothe their message in face-to-face and
          audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify their
          point of view with that of the average person. A common example
          of this type of propaganda is a political figure, usually
          running for a placement, in a backyard or shop doing daily
          routine things. This image appeals to the common person. With
          the plain folks device, the propagandist can win the confidence
          of persons who resent or distrust foreign sounding, intellectual
          speech, words, or mannerisms."^[20] For example, a politician
          speaking to a Southern United States crowd might incorporate
          words such as "Y'all" and other colloquialisms to create a
          perception of belonging.

   Cult of personality
          A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media
          to create an idealized and heroic public image, often through
          unquestioning flattery and praise. The hero personality then
          advocates the positions that the propagandist desires to
          promote. For example, modern propagandists hire popular
          personalities to promote their ideas and/or products.

   Demonizing the enemy
          Making individuals from the opposing nation, from a different
          ethnic group, or those who support the opposing viewpoint appear
          to be subhuman (e.g., the Vietnam War-era term "gooks" for
          National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam aka Vietcong,
          or "VC", soldiers), worthless, or immoral, through suggestion or
          false accusations. Dehumanizing is also a term used synonymously
          with demonizing, the latter usually serves as an aspect of the

   World War I poster by Winsor McCay, urging Americans to buy Liberty

          Propaganda towards an adversary to erode fighting spirit, and
          encourage surrender or defection.

          This technique hopes to simplify the decision making process by
          using images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions
          to take, eliminating any other possible choices. Authority
          figures can be used to give the order, overlapping it with the
          appeal to authority technique, but not necessarily. The Uncle
          Sam "I want you" image is an example of this technique.

          The creation or deletion of information from public records, in
          the purpose of making a false record of an event or the actions
          of a person or organization, including outright forgery of
          photographs, motion pictures, broadcasts, and sound recordings
          as well as printed documents.

   Divide and rule
          Divide and rule in politics and sociology is gaining and
          maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power
          into pieces that individually have less power than the one
          implementing the strategy.

   Door-in-the-face technique
          Is used to increase a person's latitude of acceptance. For
          example, if a salesperson wants to sell an item for $100 but the
          public is only willing to pay $50, the salesperson first offers
          the item at a higher price (e.g., $200) and subsequently reduces
          the price to $100 to make it seem like a good deal.

          A dysphemism is an expression with a negative connotation. It is
          the opposite of a euphemism.

          A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in
          place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something

          The use of an event that generates euphoria or happiness, or
          using an appealing event to boost morale. Euphoria can be
          created by declaring a holiday, making luxury items available,
          or mounting a military parade with marching bands and patriotic

          An exaggeration (or hyperbole) occurs when the most fundamental
          aspects of a statement are true, but only to a certain degree.
          It is also seen as "stretching the truth" or making something
          appear more powerful, meaningful, or real than it actually is.
          Saying that a person ate 20 spring rolls at a party when they
          actually ate 7 or 8 would be considered an exaggeration.

   False accusations
          False accusations can be in any of the following contexts:
          informally in everyday life, quasi-judicially, or judicially.

   Fear, uncertainty, and doubt
          Sometimes abbreviated as FUD, an attempt to influence public
          perception by disseminating negative and dubious/false
          information designed to undermine the credibility of their

   Firehose of falsehood
          A propaganda technique in which a large number of messages are
          broadcast rapidly, repetitively, and continuously over multiple
          channels (such as news and social media) without regard for
          truth or consistency.

          An attempt to justify an action on the grounds that doing so
          will make one more patriotic, or in some way benefit a group,
          country, or idea. The feeling of patriotism this technique
          attempts to inspire may not necessarily diminish or entirely
          omit one's capability for rational examination of the matter in

   The Finnish Maiden - personification of Finnish nationalism

   Foot-in-the-door technique
          Often used by recruiters and salesmen. For example, the
          perpetrator walks up to the victim and pins a flower or gives a
          small gift to the victim. The victim says thanks and now they
          have incurred a psychological debt to the perpetrator. The
          person eventually asks for a larger favor (e.g., a donation or
          to buy something far more expensive). The unwritten social
          contract between the victim and perpetrator causes the victim to
          feel obligated to reciprocate by agreeing to do the larger favor
          or buy the more expensive gift.

   Framing (social sciences)
          Framing is the social construction of a social phenomenon often
          by mass media sources, political or social movements, political
          leaders, or other actors and organizations. It is an inevitable
          process of selective influence over the individual's perception
          of the meanings attributed to words or phrases.

          Using persistent denial, misdirection, contradiction, and lying
          to sow seeds of doubt in a target individual or group, hoping to
          make them question their own memory, perception, sanity, and

   Gish gallop
          Bombarding a political opponent with obnoxiously complex
          questions in rapid fire during a debate to make the opponent
          appear to not know what they are talking about.

   Glittering generalities
          Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words that are
          applied to a product or idea, but present no concrete argument
          or analysis. This technique has also been referred to as the PT
          Barnum effect. (e.g., the advertising campaign slogan "Ford has
          a better idea!")

   Guilt by association or Reductio ad Hitlerum
          This technique is used to persuade a target audience to
          disapprove of an action or idea by suggesting that the idea is
          popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the
          target audience. Thus if a group that supports a certain policy
          is led to believe that undesirable, subversive, or contemptible
          people support the same policy, then the members of the group
          may decide to change their original position. This is a form of
          bad logic, where A is said to include X, and B is said to
          include X, therefore, A = B.

          A half-truth is a deceptive statement that includes some element
          of truth. It comes in several forms: the statement might be
          partly true, the statement may be totally true but only part of
          the whole truth, or it may utilize some deceptive element, such
          as improper punctuation, or double meaning, especially if the
          intent is to deceive, evade, blame, or misrepresent the truth.

   Information overload
          "Information overload can have the same effect as secrecy and
          certainly in the short term and for democracies today it might
          be considered more effective."^[21] "When information overload
          occurs, it is likely that a reduction in decision quality will
          occur."^[22] "The glut of information generated by modern
          technology [...] threatens to make its receivers passive.
          Overload prompts disengagement."^[23]

   Intentional vagueness
          Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may
          supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the
          audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their
          validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or
          application. The intent is to cause people to draw their own
          interpretations rather than simply being presented with an
          explicit idea. In trying to "figure out" the propaganda, the
          audience forgoes judgment of the ideas presented. Their
          validity, reasonableness and application may still be

          A euphemism is used when the propagandist attempts to increase
          the perceived quality, credibility, or credence of a particular
          ideal. A dysphemism is used when the intent of the propagandist
          is to discredit, diminish the perceived quality, or hurt the
          perceived righteousness of the individual. By creating a
          "label", "category", or "faction" of a population, it is much
          easier to make an example of these larger bodies, because they
          can uplift or defame the individual without actually incurring
          legal-defamation. Labeling can be thought of as a sub-set of
          guilt by association, another logical fallacy.^[24]

   Latitudes of acceptance
          If a person's message is outside the bounds of acceptance for an
          individual and group, most techniques will engender
          psychological reactance (simply hearing the argument will make
          the message even less acceptable). There are two techniques for
          increasing the bounds of acceptance. First, one can take an even
          more extreme position that will make more moderate positions
          seem more acceptable. This is similar to the door-in-the-face
          technique. Alternatively, one can moderate one's own position to
          the edge of the latitude of acceptance and then over time slowly
          move to the position that was previously held.^[25]

   "The Conquest or Arrival of Hernan Cortes in Veracruz", 1951, National
   Palace, Mexico City. Diego Rivera's political murals depict a modern
   interpretation of the Black Legend.

   Loaded language
          Specific words and phrases with strong emotional implications
          are used to influence the audience, for example, using the word
          reforms rather than a more neutral word like changes.

   Love bombing

   See also: Milieu control

          Used to recruit members to a cult or ideology by having a group
          of individuals cut off a person from their existing social
          support and replace it entirely with members of the group who
          deliberately bombard the person with affection in an attempt to
          isolate the person from their prior beliefs and value system.

   Lying and deception
          Lying and deception can be the basis of many propaganda
          techniques including Ad Hominem arguments, Big-Lie, Defamation,
          Door-in-the-Face, Half-truth, Name-calling or any other
          technique that is based on dishonesty or deception. For example,
          many politicians have been found to frequently stretch or break
          the truth.

   Managing the news
          According to Adolf Hitler, "The most brilliant propagandist
          technique will yield no success unless one fundamental principle
          is borne in mind constantly - it must confine itself to a few
          points and repeat them over and over."^[26]^[27] This idea is
          consistent with the principle of classical conditioning as well
          as the idea of "Staying on Message."

   Anti-Muslim propaganda in Germany produced during the Ottoman wars in
   Europe, 16th century

   Milieu control
          An attempt to control the social environment and ideas through
          the use of social pressure

          Minimisation is the opposite of exaggeration. It is a type of
          deception^[28] involving denial coupled with rationalization in
          situations where complete denial is implausible.

          Propagandists use the name-calling technique to incite fears and
          arouse prejudices in their hearers in the intent that the bad
          names will cause hearers to construct a negative opinion about a
          group or set of beliefs or ideas that the propagandist wants
          hearers to denounce. The method is intended to provoke
          conclusions about a matter apart from impartial examinations of
          facts. Name-calling is thus a substitute for rational,
          fact-based arguments against an idea or belief on its own

   Name-calling is the lowest level in Graham's hierarchy of disagreement.

   Non sequitur
          A type of logical fallacy, in which a conclusion is made out of
          an argument that does not justify it. All invalid arguments can
          be considered as special cases of non sequitur.

   Obfuscation, intentional vagueness, confusion
          Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may
          supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the
          audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their
          validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or
          application. The intent is to cause people to draw their own
          interpretations rather than simply being presented with an
          explicit idea. In trying to "figure out" the propaganda, the
          audience forgoes judgment of the ideas presented. Their
          validity, reasonableness and application may still be

   Operant conditioning
          Operant conditioning involves learning through imitation. For
          example, watching an appealing person buy products or endorse
          positions teaches a person to buy the product or endorse the
          position. Operant conditioning is the underlying principle
          behind the ad nauseam, slogan and other repetition public
          relations campaigns.

          Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to
          complex social, political, economic, or military problems.

   Illustration by Rev. Branford Clarke from Heroes of the Fiery Cross by
   Bishop Alma White published by the Pillar of Fire Church 1928 in
   Zarephath, NJ

   Pensee unique
          Enforced reduction of discussion by use of overly simplistic
          phrases or arguments (e.g., "There is no alternative to war.")

   Quotes out of context
          Selective editing of quotes that can change meanings. Political
          documentaries designed to discredit an opponent or an opposing
          political viewpoint often use this technique.

          Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to
          rationalize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant
          phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs.

   Red herring
          Presenting data or issues that, while compelling, are irrelevant
          to the argument at hand, and then claiming that it validates the
          argument.^[citation needed]

   In 1807, William Cobbett wrote how he used red herrings to lay a false
   trail, while training hunting dogs--an apocryphal story that was
   probably the origin of the idiom.

          This is the repeating of a certain symbol or slogan so that the
          audience remembers it. This could be in the form of a jingle or
          an image placed on nearly everything in the picture/scene. This
          also includes using subliminal phrases, images or other content
          in a piece of propaganda.^[24]

          Assigning blame to an individual or group, thus alleviating
          feelings of guilt from responsible parties and/or distracting
          attention from the need to fix the problem for which blame is
          being assigned.

   Nationalist slogan "Brazil, love it or leave it", often used during the
   Brazilian military dictatorship (1964-1985)

          A slogan is a brief, striking phrase that may include labeling
          and stereotyping. Although slogans may be enlisted to support
          reasoned ideas, in practice they tend to act only as emotional
          appeals. Opponents of the US's invasion and occupation of Iraq
          use the slogan "blood for oil" to suggest that the invasion and
          its human losses was done to access Iraq's oil riches. On the
          other hand, supporters who argue that the US should continue to
          fight in Iraq use the slogan "cut and run" to suggest withdrawal
          is cowardly or weak. Similarly, the names of the military
          campaigns, such as "enduring freedom" or "just cause" can also
          be considered slogans, devised to influence people.

          A smear is an effort to damage or call into question someone's
          reputation, by propounding negative propaganda. It can be
          applied to individuals or groups.

   Stereotyping, name calling or labeling
          This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by
          labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the
          target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable. For
          instance, reporting on a foreign country or social group may
          focus on the stereotypical traits that the reader expects, even
          though they are far from being representative of the whole
          country or group; such reporting often focuses on the anecdotal.
          In graphic propaganda, including war posters, this might include
          portraying enemies with stereotyped racial features.

   Straw man
          A straw man argument is an informal fallacy based on
          misrepresentation of an opponent's position. To "attack a straw
          man" is to create the illusion of having refuted a proposition
          by substituting a superficially similar proposition (the "straw
          man"), and refuting it, without ever having actually refuted the
          original position.


   See also: Damaging quotation

          Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially
          cited to support or reject a given policy, action, program, or
          personality. The reputation or the role (expert, respected
          public figure, etc.) of the individual giving the statement is
          exploited. The testimonial places the official sanction of a
          respected person or authority on a propaganda message. This is
          done in an effort to cause the target audience to identify
          itself with the authority or to accept the authority's opinions
          and beliefs as its own.

   "The Bulgarian Martyresses", 1877 painting by the Russian painter
   Konstantin Makovsky depicting the rape of Bulgarian women by Ottoman
   troops during the suppression of the April Uprising a year earlier,
   served to mobilize public support for the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
   waged with the proclaimed aim of liberating the Bulgarians.

   Third party technique

   See also: Soft power

          Works on the principle that people are more willing to accept an
          argument from a seemingly independent source of information than
          from someone with a stake in the outcome. It is a marketing
          strategy commonly employed by Public Relations (PR) firms, that
          involves placing a premeditated message in the "mouth of the
          media." The third party technique can take many forms, ranging
          from the hiring of journalists to report the organization in a
          favorable light, to using scientists within the organization to
          present their perhaps prejudicial findings to the public.
          Frequently, astroturf groups or front groups are used to deliver
          the message.

   Thought-terminating cliche
          A commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used
          to quell cognitive dissonance.

          Also known as association, this is a technique of projecting
          positive or negative qualities (praise or blame) of a person,
          entity, object, or value onto another to make the second more
          acceptable or to discredit it. It evokes an emotional response,
          which stimulates the target to identify with recognized
          authorities. Often highly visual, this technique often utilizes
          symbols (for example, the swastikas used in Nazi Germany,
          originally a symbol for health and prosperity) superimposed over
          other visual images.

   Unstated assumption
          This technique is used when the propaganda concept would seem
          less credible if explicitly stated. The concept is instead
          repeatedly assumed or implied.

   Virtue words

   See also: Transfer (propaganda)

          These are words in the value system of the target audience that
          produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue.
          Peace, hope, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, "The
          Truth", etc. are virtue words. Many see religiosity as a virtue,
          making associations to this quality effectively beneficial.

          Whataboutism is a variant of the tu quoque logical fallacy that
          attempts to discredit an opponent's position by charging them
          with hypocrisy without directly refuting or disproving their
          argument, which is particularly associated with Soviet and
          Russian propaganda. When criticisms were leveled at the Soviet
          Union, the Soviet response would be "What about..." followed by
          an event in the Western world.

See also[edit]

     * Demonization
     * Doublespeak
     * Factoid
     * List of cognitive biases
     * Spin (politics)
     * Outline of public relations


    1. ^ Garth Jowett, Victoria O'Donnell (2006), Propaganda and
       Persuasion (in German), SAGE, ISBN 978-1-4129-0898-6, retrieved
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       shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to
       achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the
    2. ^ Lasswell, Harold Dwight (1937): Propaganda Technique in the World
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    3. ^ ^a ^b Stanley B. Cunningham (2002), The Idea of Propaganda: A
       Reconstruction (in German), Greenwood Publishing Group,
       ISBN 9780275974459, retrieved 3 July 2019
    4. ^ ^a ^b Thymian Bussemer (26 June 2008), Propaganda: Konzepte und
       Theorien (in German), Springer-Verlag, ISBN 9783531161600,
       retrieved 2 July 2019
    5. ^ John Scott (1994), Power: Critical Concepts (in German),
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       Popular Culture (in German), McFarland, ISBN 978-0-7864-5460-0,
       retrieved 30 June 2019CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list
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    8. ^ Bussemer Thymian. "Psychologie der Propaganda | APuZ" (in
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       will Decide Future Wars (in German), Educreation Publishing,
       retrieved 30 June 2019
   10. ^ Florian Schaurer , Hans-Joachim Ruff-Stahl. "Hybride Bedrohungen.
       Sicherheitspolitik in der Grauzone | APuZ" (in German).
   11. ^ Ali Almossawi (2014), An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments (in
       German), The Experiment, ISBN 978-1-61519-226-7, retrieved 7 April
   12. ^ Bo Bennett (2017), Logically Fallacious: The Ultimate Collection
       of Over 300 Logical Fallacies (Academic Edition) (in German),
       eBookIt.com, ISBN 978-1-4566-0737-1, retrieved 7 April 2019
   13. ^ Paul Walter, Petra Wenzl (2015), Kritisch denken - treffend
       argumentieren: Ein Uebungsbuch (in German), Springer-Verlag,
       ISBN 978-3-658-10554-9, retrieved 30 June 2019
   14. ^ Albert Moessmer (2016), 64 Fehlschluesse in Argumenten: Logische
       und rhetorische Irrwege erkennen und vermeiden (in German),
       BookRix, ISBN 978-3-7396-3631-3, retrieved 30 June 2019
   15. ^ Valentin Zsifkovits (2005), Ethisch richtig denken und handeln
       (in German), LIT Verlag Muenster, ISBN 978-3-8258-8509-0, retrieved
       30 June 2019
   16. ^ Cole, Robert, ed. (1998). Encyclopedia of Propaganda. Armonk, NY:
       Sharpe Reference. ISBN 9780765680099. OCLC 37238860. Missing or
       empty |title= (help)
   17. ^ McCombs, M; Reynolds, A (2002). "News influence on our pictures
       of the world". Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research.
       doi:10.4324/9781410602428-5 (inactive 2020-11-09).CS1 maint: DOI
       inactive as of November 2020 (link) closed access
   18. ^ "Sex Doesn't Sell After All, Study Says". Bloomberg. 18 August
       2015. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
   19. ^ Scot Macdonald (2007). Propaganda and information warfare in the
       twenty-first century: altered images and deception operations.
       Taylor & Francis. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-415-77145-0.
   20. ^ Psychological Operations Field Manual No.33-1. Washington DC:
       Headquarters; Department of the Army. 1979.
   21. ^ Briant, Emma (January 2015). Propaganda and counter-terrorism:
       Strategies for global change. Oxford University Press.
       ISBN 9781847799623.
   22. ^ Speier, Cheri; Valacich, Joseph; Vessey, Iris (1999). "The
       Influence of Task Interruption on Individual Decision Making: An
       Information Overload Perspective". Decision Sciences. 30 (2):
       337-360. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5915.1999.tb01613.x.
   23. ^ Sennett, Richard. The Culture of the New Capitalism. Yale
       University Press. p. 172.
   24. ^ ^a ^b A Citizens Guide to Understanding Corporate Media
       Propaganda Techniques^[unreliable source?]
   25. ^ unacceptable message
   26. ^ Joel H. Spring (2006). Pedagogies of globalization: the rise of
       the educational security state. Psychology Press. p. 60.
       ISBN 978-0-8058-5557-9.
   27. ^ Hilmar Hoffmann; John Broadwin; Volker R. Berghahn (1997). The
       triumph of propaganda: film and national socialism, 1933-1945.
       Berghahn Books. p. 140. ISBN 978-1-57181-122-6.
   28. ^ Guerrero, L., Anderson, P., Afifi, W. (2007). Close Encounters:
       Communication in Relationships (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage
   29. ^ "PROPAGANDA". Ad Age. 15 September 2003.

   Links to related articles
     * v
     * t
     * e

   Disinformation and misinformation
     * Alternative facts
     * Big lie
     * Bullshit
     * Cherry picking
     * Circular reporting
     * Deception
     * Doublespeak
     * Euphemistic misspeaking
     * Euromyth
     * Factoid
     * Fake news
          + online
     * Fallacy
     * False accusation
     * False flag
     * Fear, uncertainty, and doubt
     * Gaslighting
     * Half-truth
     * Hoax
     * Internet manipulation
     * Media manipulation
     * Potemkin village
     * Post-truth politics
     * Propaganda
     * Quote mining
     * Scientific fabrication
     * Smearing
     * Social bot
     * Spin
     * Truthiness
     * View from nowhere
     * Whataboutism
     * Yellow journalism

     * Disinformation by Ion Mihai Pacepa
     * Dezinformatsia: Active Measures in Soviet Strategy
     * The KGB and Soviet Disinformation
     * Who's Who in the CIA

   and events
   United States
   1995 CIA disinformation controversy
     * CIA Kennedy assassination conspiracy theory
     * Clockwork Orange plot
     * The Freedom Fighter's Manual
     * Habbush letter
     * Information Operations Roadmap
     * Mohamed Atta's alleged Prague connection
     * Niger uranium forgeries
     * Operation Shocker
     * Yellow rain

   Russia /
   Soviet Union
   Active Measures

     K-1000 battleship

     Operation INFEKTION

     Operation Toucan

     Pope Pius XII and Russia

     Soviet influence on the peace movement

     Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections

     Seat 12

     Trolls from Olgino

     U.S. Army Field Manual 30-31B

     Russian web brigades
   Chinese information operations
   Media censorship and disinformation during the Gezi Park protests
   Operation Neptune
   COVID-19 pandemic

     Jonestown conspiracy theories

     Strategy of tension

     Active Measures Working Group

     Counter Misinformation Team

     Countering Foreign Propaganda and Disinformation Act

     East StratCom Team




     United States Information Agency

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Fallacies (list)
   In propositional logic
     * Affirming a disjunct
     * Affirming the consequent
     * Denying the antecedent
     * Argument from fallacy

   In quantificational logic
     * Existential
     * Illicit conversion
     * Proof by example
     * Quantifier shift

   Syllogistic fallacy
     * Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise
     * Exclusive premises
     * Existential
     * Necessity
     * Four terms
     * Illicit major
     * Illicit minor
     * Negative conclusion from affirmative premises
     * Undistributed middle

     * Masked man
     * Mathematical fallacy

     * Equivocation
     * False equivalence
     * False attribution
     * Quoting out of context
     * Loki's Wager
     * No true Scotsman
     * Reification

   Question-begging fallacies
     * Circular reasoning / Begging the question
     * Loaded language
          + Leading question
     * Compound question / Loaded question / Complex question
     * No true Scotsman

   Correlative-based fallacies
     * False dilemma
          + Perfect solution
     * Denying the correlative
     * Suppressed correlative

   Illicit transference
     * Composition
     * Division
     * Ecological

   Secundum quid
     * Accident
     * Converse accident

   Faulty generalization
     * Anecdotal evidence
     * Sampling bias
          + Cherry picking
          + McNamara
     * Base rate / Conjunction
     * Double counting
     * False analogy
     * Slothful induction
     * Overwhelming exception

   Vagueness / ambiguity
     * Accent
     * False precision
     * Moving the goalposts
     * Quoting out of context
     * Slippery slope
     * Sorites paradox
     * Syntactic ambiguity

   Questionable cause
     * Animistic
          + Furtive
     * Correlation implies causation
          + Cum hoc
          + Post hoc
     * Gambler's
          + Inverse
     * Regression
     * Single cause
     * Slippery slope
     * Texas sharpshooter

   Fallacies of relevance
   Appeals to emotion
     * Fear
     * Flattery
     * Novelty
     * Pity
     * Ridicule
     * Think of the children
     * In-group favoritism
     * Invented here / Not invented here
     * Island mentality
     * Loyalty
     * Parade of horribles
     * Spite
     * Stirring symbols
     * Wisdom of repugnance

   Genetic fallacies
   Ad hominem
     * Appeal to motive
     * Association
          + Reductio ad Hitlerum
               o Godwin's law
          + Reductio ad Stalinum
     * Bulverism
     * Poisoning the well
     * Tone
     * Tu quoque
     * Whataboutism

     * Authority
          + Accomplishment
          + Ipse dixit
          + Poverty / Wealth
     * Etymology
     * Nature
     * Tradition / Novelty
          + Chronological snobbery

   Appeals to consequences
     * Argumentum ad baculum
     * Wishful thinking

     * Ad nauseam
          + Sealioning
     * Argument to moderation
     * Argumentum ad populum
     * Appeal to the stone / Proof by assertion
     * Ignoratio elenchi
     * Argument from silence
     * Invincible ignorance
     * Moralistic / Naturalistic
     * Motte-and-bailey fallacy
     * Rationalization
     * Red herring
          + Two wrongs make a right
     * Special pleading
     * Straw man
     * Cliche
     * I'm entitled to my opinion

     * Category Category

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Media manipulation


     * Bias
     * Crowd psychology
     * Deception
     * Dumbing down
     * False balance
     * Half-truths
     * Machiavellianism
     * Media
     * Obfuscation
     * Orwellian
     * Persuasion
     * Psychological manipulation


     * Alternative media
     * Boycott
     * Call-out culture
     * Cancel culture
     * Civil disobedience
     * Culture jamming
     * Demonstrations
     * Deplatforming
     * Guerrilla communication
     * Hacktivism
     * Internet
     * Media
     * Occupations
     * Petitions
     * Protests
     * Youth


     * Billboards
     * False
     * Infomercials
     * Mobiles
     * Modeling
     * Radio
     * Sex
     * Slogans
     * Testimonials
     * TV
     * Criticism of advertising
     * Annoyance factor

     * Censorship
     * Media regulation

     * Books
     * Broadcast law
     * Burying of scholars
     * Catch and kill
     * Corporate
     * Cover-ups
     * Euphemism
     * Films
     * Historical negationism
     * Internet
     * Political
     * Religious
     * Self


     * Alternative facts
     * April Fools'
     * Fake news
          + websites
     * Fakelore
     * Fictitious entries
     * Forgery
     * Gaslighting
     * List
     * Literary
     * Racial
     * Urban legend
     * Virus


     * Branding
     * Loyalty
     * Product
     * Product placement
     * Publicity
     * Research
     * Word of mouth

   News media

     * Agenda-setting
     * Broadcasting
     * Circus
     * Cycle
     * False balance
     * Infotainment
     * Managing
     * Narcotizing dysfunction
     * Newspeak
     * Pseudo-event
     * Scrum
     * Sensationalism
     * Tabloid journalism

   Political campaigning

     * Advertising
     * Astroturfing
     * Attack ad
     * Canvassing
     * Character assassination
     * Charm offensive
     * Dog-whistle politics
     * Election promises
     * Lawn signs
     * Manifestos
     * Name recognition
     * Negative
     * Push polling
     * Smear campaign
     * Wedge issue


     * Bandwagon
     * Crowd manipulation
     * Disinformation
     * Fearmongering
     * Framing
     * Indoctrination
     * Loaded language
     * Lying press
     * National mythology
     * Rally 'round the flag effect
     * Techniques

   Psychological warfare

     * Airborne leaflets
     * False flag
     * Fifth column
     * Information (IT)
     * Lawfare
     * Political
     * Public diplomacy
     * Sedition
     * Subversion

   Public relations

     * Cult of personality
     * Doublespeak
     * Non-apology apology
     * Reputation management
     * Slogans
     * Sound bites
     * Spin
     * Transfer
     * Understatement
     * Weasel words


     * Cold calling
     * Door-to-door
     * Pricing
     * Product demonstrations
     * Promotion
     * Promotional merchandise
     * Telemarketing


     * Media bias
          + United States
     * Media concentration
     * Media democracy
     * Media ecology
     * Media ethics
     * Media franchise
     * Media influence
     * Media proprietor

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Propaganda techniques

     * Ad hominem
     * Appeal to fear
     * Atrocity propaganda
     * Bandwagon effect
     * Big lie
     * Blood libel
     * Buzzword
     * Censorship
     * Cherry picking
     * Code word
     * Disinformation
     * Dog-whistle politics
     * Doublespeak
     * Fake news
     * Flag-waving
     * Framing
     * Gish gallop
     * Glittering generality
     * Historical negationism
     * Historical revisionism
     * Ideograph
     * Indoctrination
     * Lawfare
     * Loaded language
     * Newspeak
     * Obscurantism
     * Plain folks
     * Propaganda of the deed
     * Public relations
     * Rally 'round the flag effect
     * Slogan
     * Spin
     * Weasel word
     * Whataboutism

   Retrieved from

     * Propaganda techniques
     * Psychological warfare
     * Promotion and marketing communications
     * Public opinion

   Hidden categories:
     * CS1 German-language sources (de)
     * CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list
     * Pages with citations lacking titles
     * CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020
     * All articles lacking reliable references
     * Articles lacking reliable references from March 2014
     * Articles with short description
     * Short description matches Wikidata
     * All articles with unsourced statements
     * Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020

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