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   Device for weaving textiles
   For other uses, see Loom (disambiguation).
   Not to be confused with Knitting machine.
   A foot-treadle operated Hattersley & Sons, Domestic Loom, built under
   licence in 1893, in Keighley, Yorkshire
   A woman in Konya, Turkey, works at a vertical loom
   A simple handheld frame loom

   A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose
   of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the
   interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its
   mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.
   [ ]


     * 1 Etymology and usage
     * 2 Weaving
     * 3 Types of looms
          + 3.1 Back strap loom
          + 3.2 Warp-weighted loom
          + 3.3 Drawloom
          + 3.4 Handloom
          + 3.5 Flying shuttle
          + 3.6 Haute-lisse and basse-lisse looms
          + 3.7 Ribbon, Band, and Inkle weaving
          + 3.8 Traditional looms
     * 4 Power looms
          + 4.1 Weft insertion
          + 4.2 Shedding
               o 4.2.1 Dobby looms
               o 4.2.2 Jacquard looms
     * 5 Circular looms
     * 6 Symbolism and cultural significance
     * 7 Gallery
     * 8 See also
     * 9 References
     * 10 Bibliography
     * 11 External links

Etymology and usage[edit]

   The word "loom" derives from the Old English geloma, formed from ge-
   (perfective prefix) and loma, a root of unknown origin; the whole word
   geloma meant a utensil, tool, or machine of any kind. In 1404 "lome"
   was used to mean a machine to enable weaving thread into
   cloth.^[1]^[2]^[failed verification] By 1838 "loom" had gained the
   additional meaning of a machine for interlacing thread.^[citation


   See also: Weaving and Textile manufacturing terminology
   Weaving demonstration on an 1830 handloom in the weaving museum in

   Weaving is done by intersecting the longitudinal threads, the warp,
   i.e. "that which is thrown across",^[3] with the transverse threads,
   the weft, i.e. "that which is woven".

   The major components of the loom are the warp beam, heddles, harnesses
   or shafts (as few as two, four is common, sixteen not unheard of),
   shuttle, reed and takeup roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes
   shedding, picking, battening and taking-up operations. These are the
   principal motions.
     * Shedding. Shedding is the raising of part of the warp yarn to form
       a shed (the vertical space between the raised and unraised warp
       yarns), through which the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can
       be inserted, forming the weft. On the modern loom, simple and
       intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the
       heddle or heald frame, also known as a harness. This is a
       rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called heddles or
       healds, are attached. The yarns are passed through the eye holes of
       the heddles, which hang vertically from the harnesses. The weave
       pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, and the
       number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave.
       Two common methods of controlling the heddles are dobbies and a
       Jacquard Head.

     * Picking. As the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise
       the warp yarns, the shed is created. The filling yarn is inserted
       through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle. The
       shuttle is normally pointed at each end to allow passage through
       the shed. In a traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound
       onto a quill, which in turn is mounted in the shuttle. The filling
       yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle as it moves across the
       loom. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to
       the other is known as a pick. As the shuttle moves back and forth
       across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage, on each side of the
       fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling.
     * Battening. Between the heddles and the takeup roll, the warp
       threads pass through another frame called the reed (which resembles
       a comb). The portion of the fabric that has already been formed but
       not yet rolled up on the takeup roll is called the fell. After the
       shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, the weaver
       uses the reed to press (or batten) each filling yarn against the
       fell. Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of about 150
       to 160 picks per minute.^[4]

   There are two secondary motions, because with each weaving operation
   the newly constructed fabric must be wound on a cloth beam. This
   process is called taking up. At the same time, the warp yarns must be
   let off or released from the warp beams. To become fully automatic, a
   loom needs a tertiary motion, the filling stop motion. This will brake
   the loom if the weft thread breaks.^[4] An automatic loom requires
   0.125 hp to 0.5 hp to operate.

Types of looms[edit]

Back strap loom[edit]

   Woman weaving a silk rebozo on a backstrap loom at the Taller Escuela
   de Reboceria in Santa Maria del Rio, San Luis Potosi
   T'boli dream weavers using two-bar bamboo backstrap looms (legogong) to
   weave t'nalak cloth from abaca fiber. One bar is attached to the
   ceiling of the traditional T'boli longhouse, while the other is
   attached to the lower back.^[5]^[6]

   The back strap loom is a simple loom that has its roots in ancient
   civilizations. Andean textiles, still made today with the back strap
   loom, originated thousands of years ago with the same back strap loom
   process. It consists of two sticks or bars between which the warps are
   stretched. One bar is attached to a fixed object and the other to the
   weaver, usually by means of a strap around the back. The weaver leans
   back and uses her body weight to tension the loom. On traditional
   looms, the two main sheds are operated by means of a shed roll over
   which one set of warps pass, and continuous string heddles which encase
   each of the warps in the other set. To open the shed controlled by the
   string heddles, the weaver relaxes tension on the warps and raises the
   heddles. The other shed is usually opened by simply drawing the shed
   roll toward the weaver.

   Both simple and complex textiles can be woven on this loom. Width is
   limited to how far the weaver can reach from side to side to pass the
   shuttle. Warp faced textiles, often decorated with intricate pick-up
   patterns woven in complementary and supplementary warp techniques are
   woven by indigenous peoples today around the world. They produce such
   things as belts, ponchos, bags, hatbands and carrying cloths.
   Supplementary weft patterning and brocading is practiced in many
   regions. Balanced weaves are also possible on the backstrap loom.
   Today, commercially produced backstrap loom kits often include a rigid
   heddle.^[citation needed]

Warp-weighted loom[edit]

   Main article: Warp-weighted loom

   The warp-weighted loom is a vertical loom that may have originated in
   the Neolithic period. The earliest evidence of warp-weighted looms
   comes from sites belonging to the Starcevo culture in modern Serbia and
   Hungary and from late Neolithic sites in Switzerland.^[7] This loom was
   used in Ancient Greece, and spread north and west throughout Europe
   thereafter.^[8] Its defining characteristic is hanging weights (loom
   weights) which keep bundles of the warp threads taut. Frequently, extra
   warp thread is wound around the weights. When a weaver has reached the
   bottom of the available warp, the completed section can be rolled
   around the top beam, and additional lengths of warp threads can be
   unwound from the weights to continue. This frees the weaver from
   vertical size constraint.


   A drawloom is a hand-loom for weaving figured cloth. In a drawloom, a
   "figure harness" is used to control each warp thread separately.^[9] A
   drawloom requires two operators, the weaver and an assistant called a
   "drawboy" to manage the figure harness. The earliest confirmed drawloom
   fabrics come from the State of Chu and date c. 400 BC.^[10] Most
   scholars attribute the invention of the drawloom to the ancient
   Chinese, although some speculate an independent invention from ancient
   Syria since drawloom fabrics found in Dura-Europas are thought to date
   before 256 AD.^[10]^[11] The draw loom for patterned weaving was
   invented in ancient China during the Han Dynasty.^[12] Chinese weavers
   and artisans used foot-powered multi-harness looms and jacquard looms
   for silk weaving and embroidery; both of which were cottage industries
   with imperial workshops.^[13] The Chinese-invented drawloom enhanced
   and sped up the production of silk and play a significant role in
   Chinese silk weaving. The loom was later introduced to Persia, India,
   and Europe.^[12]


                                     Elements of a foot-treadle floor loom
    1. Wood frame
    2. Seat for weaver
    3. Warp beam- let off
    4. Warp threads
    5. Back beam or platen
    6. Rods - used to make a shed
    7. Heddle frame - heald frame - harness
    8. Heddle- heald - the eye
    9. Shuttle with weft yarn
   10. Shed
   11. Completed fabric
   12. Breast beam
   13. Batten with reed comb
   14. Batten adjustment
   15. Lathe
   16. Treadles
   17. Cloth roll- takeup

   Traditional loom at Ranipauwa Muktinath, Nepal

   A handloom is a simple machine used for weaving. In a wooden
   vertical-shaft loom, the heddles are fixed in place in the shaft. The
   warp threads pass alternately through a heddle, and through a space
   between the heddles (the shed), so that raising the shaft raises half
   the threads (those passing through the heddles), and lowering the shaft
   lowers the same threads -- the threads passing through the spaces
   between the heddles remain in place. This was invented in the 13th
   century.^[citation needed] It can have a Jacquard machine attached to
   it.^[14] Handloom weavers commonly use three types of looms: pit looms,
   stand looms, and frame looms. ^[15]

Flying shuttle[edit]

   Main article: Flying shuttle

   Hand weavers could only weave a cloth as wide as their armspan. If
   cloth needed to be wider, two people would do the task (often this
   would be an adult with a child). John Kay (1704-1779) patented the
   flying shuttle in 1733. The weaver held a picking stick that was
   attached by cords to a device at both ends of the shed. With a flick of
   the wrist, one cord was pulled and the shuttle was propelled through
   the shed to the other end with considerable force, speed and
   efficiency. A flick in the opposite direction and the shuttle was
   propelled back. A single weaver had control of this motion but the
   flying shuttle could weave much wider fabric than an arm's length at
   much greater speeds than had been achieved with the hand thrown

   The flying shuttle was one of the key developments in weaving that
   helped fuel the Industrial Revolution. The whole picking motion no
   longer relied on manual skill and it was just a matter of time before
   it could be powered.

  Haute-lisse and basse-lisse looms[edit]

   Looms used for weaving traditional tapestry are classified as
   haute-lisse looms, where the warp is suspended vertically between two
   rolls. In basse-lisse looms, however, the warp extends horizontally
   between the two rolls.

  Ribbon, Band, and Inkle weaving[edit]

   Main article: Inkle weaving

  Traditional looms[edit]

   Several other types of hand looms exist, including the simple frame
   loom, pit loom, free-standing loom, and the pegged loom. Each of these
   can be constructed, and provide work and income in developing

   The earliest evidence of a horizontal loom is found on a pottery dish
   in ancient Egypt, dated to 4400 BC. It was a frame loom, equipped with
   foot pedals to lift the warp threads, leaving the weaver's hands free
   to pass and beat the weft thread.^[17]

Power looms[edit]

   Main article: Power loom

   Two Lancashire looms in the Queen Street Mill weaving shed, Burnley

   A 1939 loom working at the Mueller Cloth Mill museum in Euskirchen,

   Edmund Cartwright built and patented a power loom in 1785, and it was
   this that was adopted by the nascent cotton industry in England. The
   silk loom made by Jacques Vaucanson in 1745 operated on the same
   principles but was not developed further. The invention of the flying
   shuttle by John Kay was critical to the development of a commercially
   successful power loom.^[18] Cartwright's loom was impractical but the
   ideas behind it were developed by numerous inventors in the Manchester
   area of England where, by 1818, there were 32 factories containing
   5,732 looms.^[19]

   Horrocks loom was viable, but it was the Roberts Loom in 1830 that
   marked the turning point.^[20] Incremental changes to the three motions
   continued to be made. The problems of sizing, stop-motions, consistent
   take-up, and a temple to maintain the width remained. In 1841,
   Kenworthy and Bullough produced the Lancashire Loom^[21] which was
   self-acting or semi-automatic. This enables a youngster to run six
   looms at the same time. Thus, for simple calicos, the power loom became
   more economical to run than the hand loom - with complex patterning
   that used a dobby or Jacquard head, jobs were still put out to handloom
   weavers until the 1870s. Incremental changes were made such as the
   Dickinson Loom, culminating in the Keighley-born inventor Northrop, who
   was working for the Draper Corporation in Hopedale producing the fully
   automatic Northrop Loom. This loom recharged the shuttle when the pirn
   was empty. The Draper E and X models became the leading products from
   1909. They were challenged by synthetic fibres such as rayon.^[22] By
   1942, faster, more efficient, and shuttleless Sulzer and rapier looms
   had been introduced.^[23] Modern industrial looms can weave at 2,000
   weft insertions per minute.^[24]

  Weft insertion[edit]

   A Picanol rapier loom

   Different types of looms are most often defined by the way that the
   weft, or pick, is inserted into the warp. Many advances in weft
   insertion have been made in order to make manufactured cloth more cost
   effective. There are five main types of weft insertion and they are as
     * Shuttle: The first-ever powered looms were shuttle-type looms.
       Spools of weft are unravelled as the shuttle travels across the
       shed. This is very similar to projectile methods of weaving, except
       that the weft spool is stored on the shuttle. These looms are
       considered obsolete in modern industrial fabric manufacturing
       because they can only reach a maximum of 300 picks per minute.
     * Air jet: An air-jet loom uses short quick bursts of compressed air
       to propel the weft through the shed in order to complete the weave.
       Air jets are the fastest traditional method of weaving in modern
       manufacturing and they are able to achieve up to 1,500 picks per
       minute. However, the amounts of compressed air required to run
       these looms, as well as the complexity in the way the air jets are
       positioned, make them more costly than other looms.
     * Water jet: Water-jet looms use the same principle as air-jet looms,
       but they take advantage of pressurized water to propel the weft.
       The advantage of this type of weaving is that water power is
       cheaper where water is directly available on site. Picks per minute
       can reach as high as 1,000.
     * Rapier loom: This type of weaving is very versatile, in that rapier
       looms can weave using a large variety of threads. There are several
       types of rapiers, but they all use a hook system attached to a rod
       or metal band to pass the pick across the shed. These machines
       regularly reach 700 picks per minute in normal production.
     * Projectile: Projectile looms utilize an object that is propelled
       across the shed, usually by spring power, and is guided across the
       width of the cloth by a series of reeds. The projectile is then
       removed from the weft fibre and it is returned to the opposite side
       of the machine so it can be reused. Multiple projectiles are in use
       in order to increase the pick speed. Maximum speeds on these
       machines can be as high as 1,050 ppm.


    Dobby looms[edit]

   A dobby loom is a type of floor loom that controls the whole warp
   threads using a dobby head. Dobby is a corruption of "draw boy" which
   refers to the weaver's helpers who used to control the warp thread by
   pulling on draw threads. A dobby loom is an alternative to a treadle
   loom, where multiple harnesses (shafts) were controlled by foot
   treadles - one for each harness.

    Jacquard looms[edit]

   Main article: Jacquard loom

   The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie
   Jacquard in 1801, which simplifies the process of manufacturing
   textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and
   matelasse.^[25]^[26] The loom is controlled by punched cards with
   punched holes, each row of which corresponds to one row of the design.
   Multiple rows of holes are punched on each card and the many cards that
   compose the design of the textile are strung together in order. It is
   based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon (1725),
   Jean Baptiste Falcon (1728) and Jacques Vaucanson (1740).^[27] To call
   it a loom is a misnomer, a Jacquard head could be attached to a power
   loom or a hand loom, the head controlling which warp thread was raised
   during shedding. Multiple shuttles could be used to control the colour
   of the weft during picking. The Jacquard loom is the predecessor to the
   computer punched card readers of the 19th and 20th centuries.^[28]
     * Hand operated Jacquard looms in the Textile Department of the
       Strzeminski Academy of Fine Arts in L/odz, Poland.
       Hand operated Jacquard looms in the Textile Department of the
       Strzeminski Academy of Fine Arts in L/odz, Poland.
     * Battening on a jacquard loom in L/odz.
       Battening on a jacquard loom in L/odz.
     * A female worker changing jacquard cards in a lace machine in a
       Nottingham factory (1918 (First World War)).
       A female worker changing jacquard cards in a lace machine in a
       Nottingham factory (1918 (First World War)).
     * Boy next to two weaving looms with the weaving pattern on reams of
       paper (India).
       Boy next to two weaving looms with the weaving pattern on reams of
       paper (India).
     * Following the pattern, holes are punched in the appropriate places
       on a jacquard card.
       Following the pattern, holes are punched in the appropriate places
       on a jacquard card.
     * Manual loom with double width and jacquard loom, Colegio del Arte
       Mayor de la Seda of Valencia.
       Manual loom with double width and jacquard loom, Colegio del Arte
       Mayor de la Seda of Valencia.
     * The Jacquard cards control the healds on a loom.
       The Jacquard cards control the healds on a loom.

Circular looms[edit]

   A circular loom is used to create a seamless tube of fabric for
   products such as hosiery, sacks, clothing, fabric hose (such as fire
   hose) and the like. Circular looms can be small jigs used for circular
   knitting^[29] or large high-speed machines for modern garments.^[30]
   Modern circular looms use up to ten shuttles driven from below in a
   circular motion by electromagnets for the weft yarns, and cams to
   control the warp threads. The warps rise and fall with each shuttle
   passage, unlike the common practice of lifting all of them at once.

Symbolism and cultural significance[edit]

   The loom is a symbol of cosmic creation and the structure upon which
   individual destiny is woven. This symbolism is encapsulated in the
   classical myth of Arachne who was changed into a spider by the goddess
   Athena, who was jealous of her skill at the godlike craft of
   weaving.^[31] In Maya civilization the goddess Ixchel taught the first
   woman how to weave at the beginning of time.^[32]


     * Model of Navajo Loom, late 19th century, Brooklyn Museum.jpg
       Model of Navajo Loom, late 19th century, Brooklyn Museum.jpg
     * An early nineteenth century Japanese loom with several heddles,
       which the weaver controls with her foot
       An early nineteenth century Japanese loom with several heddles,
       which the weaver controls with her foot
     * A Jakaltek Maya brocades a hair sash on a back strap loom.
       A Jakaltek Maya brocades a hair sash on a back strap loom.
     * Hand loom at Hjerl Hede, Denmark, showing grayish warp threads
       (back) and cloth woven with red filling yarn (front)
       Hand loom at Hjerl Hede, Denmark, showing grayish warp threads
       (back) and cloth woven with red filling yarn (front)
     * Oaxacan artisan Alberto Sanchez Martinez at loom
       Oaxacan artisan Alberto Sanchez Martinez at loom
     * Hand loom at the Korkosz Croft in Czarna Gora, Poland, 19th century
       Hand loom at the Korkosz Croft in Czarna Gora, Poland, 19th century
     * A loom in an Old Believer homestead in Slutiski, Latvia
       A loom in an Old Believer homestead in Slutiski, Latvia
     * Handloom from India
       Handloom from India
     * Weaver from India showing handloom during an exhibition
       Weaver from India showing handloom during an exhibition
     * A Grecian urn showing an upright loom
       A Grecian urn showing an upright loom

See also[edit]

     * Bunkar: The Last of the Varanasi Weavers (documentary film)
     * Fashion and Textile Museum
     * Textile manufacturing
     * Timeline of clothing and textiles technology
     * Weaving (mythology)


    1. ^ "loom". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University
       Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership
    2. ^ "loom - Origin and meaning of loom by Online Etymology
       Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
    3. ^ "warp - Search Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
    4. ^ ^a ^b Collier 1970, p. 104.
    5. ^ Lush, Emily. "Making of: T'nalak Weaving, Philippines". The
       Textile Atlas. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
    6. ^ "Abaca". White Champa. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
    7. ^ Barber 1991, pp. 93-96.
    8. ^ Crowfoot 1937, p. 36.
    9. ^ Burnham 1980, p. 48.
   10. ^ ^a ^b Broudy 1979, p. 124.
   11. ^ Forbes 1987, pp. 218, 220.
   12. ^ ^a ^b Ceccarelli, Marco; Lopez-Cajun, Carlos (2012). Explorations
       in the History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings of HMM2012
       (History of Mechanism and Machine Science). Springer. pp. 219-220.
       ISBN 978-9400799448.
   13. ^ Usher, Abbott Payson (2011). A History of Mechanical Inventions.
       Dover Publications. p. 54. ISBN 978-0486255934.
   14. ^ "Handloom VS Powerloom". 19 March 2020. Archived from the
       original on 2020-12-01.
   15. ^ "Know Your Handlooms". DAMA Handloom Store. 2020-10-18. Retrieved
   16. ^ Koster, Joan (1978). Handloom Construction: A Practical Guide for
       the Non-Expert. Volunteers in Technical Assistance, Inc. Archived
       from the original on 2 March 2014.
   17. ^ Bruno, Leonard C.; Olendorf, Donna (1997). Science and technology
       firsts. Gale Research. p. 2. ISBN 9780787602567. "4400 B.C.
       Earliest evidence of the use of a horizontal loom is its depiction
       on a pottery dish found in Egypt and dated to this time. These
       first true frame looms are equipped with foot pedals to lift the
       warp threads, leaving the weaver's hands free to pass and beat the
       weft thread."
   18. ^ Marsden 1895, p. 57.
   19. ^ Guest 1823, p. 46.
   20. ^ Marsden 1895, p. 76.
   21. ^ Marsden 1895, p. 94.
   22. ^ Mass 1990.
   23. ^ Collier 1970, p. 111.
   24. ^ Rajagopalan, S. "Advances in Weaving Technology and Looms".
       S.S.M. College of Engineering, Komarapalayam. Archived from the
       original on 29 November 2010 - via Pdexcil.org.
   25. ^ Hobsbawm, Eric (2008) [1962]. The Age of Revolution. London.
       p. 45.
   26. ^ "Fabric Glossary". Christina Lynn. Archived from the original on
       5 January 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
   27. ^ Razy 1913, p. 120.
   28. ^ Geselowitz, Michael N. (18 July 2016). "The Jacquard Loom: A
       Driver of the Industrial Revolution". The Institute: The IEEE news
       source. IEEE. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved
       31 March 2018.
   29. ^ Jocelyn C. (22 December 2008). How to: Cast on/Knit using a
       Circular Loom. Archived from the original on 2021-11-14. Retrieved
       27 June 2016 - via YouTube.
   30. ^ "Circular Looms". Starlinger. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
   31. ^ Tresidder, Jack (1997). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Symbols.
       London: Helicon Publishers. p. 127. ISBN 1-85986-059-1.
   32. ^ Rosenbaum, Brenda P. (1990). "Mayan Women, Weaving and Ethnic
       Identity: a Historical Essay". Guatemala: Museo Ixchel del Traje
       Indigena: 157-169.



   Barber, E. J. W. (1991). Prehistoric Textiles. Princeton University
   Press. ISBN 0-691-00224-X.

     Broudy, Eric (1979). The Book of Looms: A History of the Handloom
   from Ancient Times to the Present. Hanover and London: University Press
   of New England. ISBN 9780874516494.

     Burnham, Dorothy K. (1980). Warp and Weft: A Textile Terminology.
   Royal Ontario Museum. ISBN 0-88854-256-9.

     Collier, Ann M. (1970). A Handbook of Textiles. Pergamon Press.
   ISBN 0-08-018057-4.

     Crowfoot, Grace (November 1937). "Of the Warp-Weighted Loom". The
   Annual of the British School at Athens. 37: 36-47.
   doi:10.1017/s0068245400017950. S2CID 193172489.

     Forbes, R. J. (1987). Studies in Ancient Technology, Volume 4. Leiden
   / New York: E. J. Brill. ISBN 9004083073.

     Guest, Richard (1823). The Compendious History of Cotton-Manufacture.
   Retrieved 15 February 2009.

     Marsden, Richard (1895). Cotton Weaving: Its Development, Principles,
   and Practice. George Bell & Sons. Archived from the original on
   2018-06-29. Retrieved 2009-04-19.

     Mass, William (1990). "The Decline of a Technology Leader:Capability,
   strategy and shuttleless Weaving" (PDF). Business and Economic History.
   ISSN 0894-6825.

     Razy, C. (1913). Etude analytique des petits modeles de metiers
   exposes au musee des tissus (in French). Lyon, France: Musee historique
   des tissus.

     Ventura, Carol (2003). Maya Hair Sashes Backstrap Woven in
   Jacaltenango, Guatemala, Cintas Mayas tejidas con el telar de cintura
   en Jacaltenango, Guatemala. Carol Ventura. ISBN 0-9721253-1-0.

External links[edit]

   Look up loom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

   Wikimedia Commons has media related to Looms.

     * Loom demonstration video
     * "Caring for your loom" article
     * "The Art and History of Weaving"
     * The Medieval Technology Pages: "The Horizontal Loom"

     * v
     * t
     * e



     * Basketweave
     * Charvet
     * Coverlet
     * Dobby
     * Double weave
     * Even-weave
     * Lampas
     * Leno weave
     * Oxford
     * Pile weave
     * Pique
     * Plain weave
     * Satin
     * Shot
     * Twill
     * Gabardine

   Swedish weaving.jpg


     * Textiles
     * Warp and weft
     * Yarn

   Tools and techniques

     * Barber-Colman knotter
     * Beamer
     * Chilkat weaving
     * Fingerweaving
     * Flying shuttle
     * Heddle
     * Ikat
     * Inkle weaving
     * Kasuri
     * Loom
     * Navajo weaving
     * Pibiones
     * Reed
     * Salish weaving
     * Shed
     * Shuttle
     * Sizing
          + Sizing machine
     * Tablet weaving
     * Taniko
     * Tapestry
     * Temple

   Types of looms

     * Air-jet loom
     * Dandy loom
     * Dobby loom
     * Hattersley loom
     * Horrocks loom
     * Jacquard loom
     * Lancashire loom
     * Northrop loom
     * Power loom
     * Rapier loom
     * Roberts loom
     * Warp-weighted loom


     * Acesas
     * Anni Albers
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     * Micheline Beauchemin
     * Johanna Brunsson
     * Ada Dietz
     * Thomas Ferguson & Co Ltd
     * Elisabeth Forsell
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     * Margaretha Reichardt
     * John Rylands
     * Brigitta Scherzenfeldt
     * Clara Sherman
     * Gunta Stoelzl
     * Judocus de Vos
     * Margaretha Zetterberg

   Employment practices

     * More looms
     * Kissing the shuttle
     * Piece-rate list


     * Bancroft Shed
     * Queen Street Mill

   Authority control: National libraries Edit this at Wikidata
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   Retrieved from

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