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Joseph Marie Jacquard

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   French inventor (1752-1834)
   Joseph Marie Jacquard
   Joseph Marie Jacquard.jpg
   Born 7 July 1752 (1752-07-07)
   Lyon, Kingdom of France
   Died 7 August 1834(1834-08-07) (aged 82)
   Oullins, Rhone, Kingdom of France
   Nationality French
   Education Worked as apprentice and learned bookbinding
   Occupation Merchant, weaver, inventor
   Known for Programmable loom
   Joseph Marie Charles Jacquard, inventeur, signature.jpg

   Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard
   (French: [Zakag"]; 7 July 1752 - 7 August 1834) was a French weaver and
   merchant. He played an important role in the development of the
   earliest programmable loom (the "Jacquard loom"), which in turn played
   an important role in the development of other programmable machines,
   such as an early version of digital compiler used by IBM to develop the
   modern day computer.
   [ ]


     * 1 Life
     * 2 Jacquard machine
     * 3 See also
     * 4 References
     * 5 Further reading
     * 6 External links


   In his grandfather's generation, several branches of the Charles family
   lived in Lyon's Couzon-Au-Mont d'Or suburb (on Lyon's north side, along
   the Saone River). To distinguish the various branches, the community
   gave them nicknames; Joseph's branch was called "Jacquard" Charles.
   Thus, Joseph's grandfather was Bartholomew Charles dit [called]

   Joseph Marie Charles dit Jacquard was born into a conservative Catholic
   family in Lyon, France, on 7 July 1752. He was one of nine children of
   Jean Charles dit Jacquard, a master weaver of Lyon, and his wife,
   Antoinette Rive. However, only Joseph and his sister Clemence (born 7
   November 1747) survived to adulthood. Although his father was a man of
   property, Joseph received no formal schooling and remained illiterate
   until he was 13. He was finally taught by his brother-in-law,
   Jean-Marie Barret, who ran a printing and book selling business. Barret
   also introduced Joseph to learned societies and scholars.^[3] Joseph
   initially helped his father operate his loom, but the work proved too
   arduous, so Jacquard was placed first with a bookbinder and then with a
   maker of printers' type.^[4]

   His mother died in 1762, and when his father died in 1772, Joseph
   inherited his father's house, looms and workshop as well as a vineyard
   and quarry in Couzon-au-Mont d'Or. Joseph then dabbled in real estate.
   In 1778, he listed his occupations as master weaver and silk
   merchant.^[3] Jacquard's occupation at this time is problematic because
   by 1780 most silk weavers did not work independently; instead, they
   worked for wages from silk merchants, and Jacquard was not registered
   as a silk merchant in Lyon.^[5]

   There is some confusion about Jacquard's early work history. British
   economist Sir John Bowring met Jacquard, who told Bowring that at one
   time he had been a maker of straw hats.^[6] Eymard claimed that before
   becoming involved in the weaving of silk, Jacquard was a type-founder
   (a maker of printers' type), a soldier, a bleacher (blanchisseur) of
   straw hats, and a lime burner (a maker of lime for mortar).^[7] Barlow
   claims that before marrying, Jacquard had worked for a bookbinder, a
   type-founder, and a maker of cutlery. After marrying, Jacquard tried
   cutlery making, type-founding, and weaving.^[8] However, Barlow does
   not cite any sources for that information.

   On 26 July 1778, Joseph married Claudine Boichon. She was a
   middle-class widow from Lyon who owned property and had a substantial
   dowry. However, Joseph soon fell deeply into debt and was brought to
   court. Barlow claims that after Jacquard's father died, Jacquard
   started a figure-weaving business but failed and lost all his wealth.
   However, Barlow cites no sources to support his claim.^[8] To settle
   his debts, he was obliged to sell his inheritance and to appropriate
   his wife's dowry. His wife retained a house in Oullins (on Lyon's south
   side, along the Rhone River), where the couple resided. On 19 April
   1779, the couple had their only child, a son, Jean Marie.^[3] Charles
   Ballot stated that after the rebellion of Lyon in 1793 was suppressed,
   Joseph and his son escaped from the city by joining the revolutionary
   army. They fought together in the Rhine campaign of 1795, serving in
   the Rhone-and-Loire battalion under General Jean Charles Pichegru.
   Joseph's son was killed outside of Heidelberg. However, Ballot repeated
   rumors and was a sloppy historian. For example, he stated that
   Jacquard's wife Claudette Boichon was the daughter of Antoine-Helon
   Boichon, a master swordsmith, whereas Claudette was a widow who had
   been married to a Mr. Boichon before she married Jacquard.^[9]

   By 1800, Joseph began inventing various devices. He invented a treadle
   loom in 1800, a loom to weave fishing nets in 1803, and starting in
   1804, the "Jacquard" loom, which would weave patterned silk
   automatically. However, these early inventions did not operate well and
   thus were unsuccessful.^[5]

   In 1801, Jacquard exhibited his invention at the Exposition des
   produits de l'industrie franc,aise in Paris, where he was awarded a
   bronze medal.^[10] In 1803 he was summoned to Paris and attached to the
   Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. A loom by Jacques de Vaucanson on
   display there suggested various improvements in his own, which he
   gradually perfected to its final state. The loom was declared public
   property in 1805, and Jacquard was rewarded with a pension and a
   royalty on each machine. Although his invention was fiercely opposed by
   the silk-weavers, who feared that its introduction, owing to the saving
   of labour, would deprive them of their livelihood, its advantages
   secured its general adoption, and by 1812 there were 11,000 Jacquard
   looms in use in France. This claim has been challenged: Initially few
   Jacquard looms were sold because of problems with the punched card
   mechanism. Only after 1815 -- once Jean Antoine Breton had solved the
   problems with the punched card mechanism -- did sales of looms

   Jacquard died at Oullins (Rhone), 7 August 1834.^[14] Six years later,
   a statue was erected to him in Lyon, on the site where his 1801 exhibit
   loom was destroyed.

Jacquard machine[edit]

   Main article: Jacquard loom
   Jacquard loom on display in the Museum of Science and Industry in
   Manchester, England

   The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical loom that uses pasteboard cards with
   punched holes, each card corresponding to one row of the design.
   Multiple rows of holes are punched in the cards and the many cards that
   compose the design of the textile are strung together in order. It is
   based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon (1725),
   Jean-Baptiste Falcon (1728) and Jacques Vaucanson (1740).^[15]

   To understand the Jacquard loom, some basic knowledge of weaving is
   necessary. Parallel threads (the "warp") are stretched across a
   rectangular frame (the "loom"). For plain cloth, every other warp
   thread is raised. Another thread (the "weft thread") is then passed (at
   a right angle to the warp) through the space (the "shed") between the
   lower and the upper warp threads. Then the raised warp threads are
   lowered, the alternate warp threads are raised, and the weft thread is
   passed through the shed in the opposite direction. With hundreds of
   such cycles, the cloth is gradually created.

        The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing^[16]

   This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and
   required 24,000 punched cards to create (1839). It was only produced to
   order. One of these portraits in the possession of Charles Babbage
   inspired him in using perforated cards in his Analytical
   Engine.^[17]^[18] It is in the collection of the Science Museum in
   London, England.^[5]

   By raising different (not just alternate) warp threads and using
   colored threads in the weft, the texture, color, design, and pattern
   can be varied to create varied and highly desirable fabrics. Weaving
   elaborate patterns or designs manually is a slow, complicated procedure
   subject to error. Jacquard's loom was intended to automate this

   Jacquard was not the first to try to automate the process of weaving.
   In 1725 Basile Bouchon invented an attachment for draw looms that used
   a broad strip of punched paper to select the warp threads that would be
   raised during weaving.^[19] Specifically, Bouchon's innovation involved
   a row of hooks. The curved portion of each hook snagged a string that
   could raise one of the warp threads, whereas the straight portion of
   each hook pressed against the punched paper, which was draped around a
   perforated cylinder. Whenever the hook pressed against the solid paper,
   pushing the cylinder forward would raise the corresponding warp thread;
   whereas whenever the hook met a hole in the paper, pushing the cylinder
   forward would allow the hook to slip inside the cylinder and the
   corresponding warp thread would not be raised. Bouchon's loom was
   unsuccessful because it could handle only a modest number of warp

   By 1737, a master silk weaver of Lyon, Jean Falcon, had increased the
   number of warp threads that the loom could handle automatically. He
   developed an attachment for looms in which Bouchon's paper strip was
   replaced by a chain of punched cards, which could deflect multiple rows
   of hooks simultaneously. Like Bouchon, Falcon used a "cylinder"
   (actually, a four-sided perforated tube) to hold each card in place
   while it was pressed against the rows of hooks.^[22] His loom was
   modestly successful; about 40 such looms had been sold by 1762.^[23]

   In 1741, Jacques de Vaucanson, a French inventor who designed and built
   automated mechanical toys, was appointed inspector of silk
   factories.^[24] Between 1747 and 1750,^[25] he tried to automate
   Bouchon's mechanism. In Vaucanson's mechanism, the hooks that were to
   lift the warp threads were selected by long pins or "needles", which
   were pressed against a sheet of punched paper that was draped around a
   perforated cylinder. Specifically, each hook passed at a right angle
   through an eyelet of a needle. When the cylinder was pressed against
   the array of needles, some of the needles, pressing against solid
   paper, would move forward, which in turn would tilt the corresponding
   hooks. The hooks that were tilted would not be raised, so the warp
   threads that were snagged by those hooks would remain in place;
   however, the hooks that were not tilted, would be raised, and the warp
   threads that were snagged by those hooks would also be raised. By
   placing his mechanism above the loom, Vaucanson eliminated the
   complicated system of weights and cords (tail cords, simple, pulley
   box, etc.) that had been used to select which warp threads were to be
   raised during weaving. Vaucanson also added a ratchet mechanism to
   advance the punched paper each time that the cylinder was pushed
   against the row of hooks.^[26]^[27]^[28]^[29] However, Vaucanson's loom
   was not successful, probably because, like Bouchon's mechanism, it
   could not control enough warp threads to make sufficiently elaborate
   patterns to justify the cost of the mechanism.^[25]

   To stimulate the French textile industry, which was competing with
   Britain's industrialized industry, Napoleon Bonaparte placed large
   orders for Lyon's silk, starting in 1802.^[13] In 1804,^[30] at the
   urging of Lyon fabric maker and inventor Gabriel Dutillieu, Jacquard
   studied Vaucanson's loom, which was stored at the Conservatoire des
   Arts et Metiers in Paris.^[5] By 1805 Jacquard had eliminated the paper
   strip from Vaucanson's mechanism and returned to using Falcon's chain
   of punched cards.^[31]

   The potential of Jacquard's loom was immediately recognized. On 12
   April 1805, Emperor Napoleon and Empress Josephine visited Lyon and
   viewed Jacquard's new loom. On 15 April 1805, the emperor granted the
   patent for Jacquard's loom to the city of Lyon. In return, Jacquard
   received a lifelong pension of 3,000 francs; furthermore, he received a
   royalty of 50 francs for each loom that was bought and used during the
   period from 1805 to 1811.^[13]

See also[edit]

     * List of pioneers in computer science


    1. ^ Delve, Janet. "Joseph Marie Jacquard: Inventor of the Jacquard
       Loom," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 29, no. 4, pp.
       98-102 (October-December 2007); see p. 98.
    2. ^ Huchard, Jean. "Entre la engender rt la reality: La faille DE
       Joseph Marie Charles dit Jacquard" [Between legend and reality: The
       family of Joseph Marie Charles known as Jacquard], part 1, Bulletin
       Municipal Official ed la Villa DE Lyon.
    3. ^ ^a ^b ^c Delve (2007), p. 98.
    4. ^ Ballot, Charles. "L'Evolution du Metier Lyonnais" in Revue
       d'histoire de Lyon: Etudes, Documents, Bibliographie, Lyon, France:
       A. Rey et Co., 1913, vol. 2, p. 39.
    5. ^ ^a ^b ^c ^d Delve (2007), p. 99.
    6. ^ Barlow, Alfred. The History and Principles of Weaving by Hand and
       by Power, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1878,
       p. 144.
    7. ^ Eymard, Paul. Historique du Metier Jacquard, Lyon, France:
       Imprimerie de Barret, 1863, p. 9. Reprinted in Annales des Sciences
       Physiques et Naturelles d'Agriculture et d'Industrie, Lyon, France,
       3rd series, vol. 7, 1863, pp. 34-56. However, Eymard does not cite
       his source for this information.
    8. ^ ^a ^b Barlow (1878), p. 140.
    9. ^ Ballot (1913), p. 40.
   10. ^ Chandler, Arthur, The Napoleonic Expositions, retrieved 12
       October 2017
   11. ^ Huchard, Jean. "Entre la legende et la realite: Les tribulations
       de la mecanique de Joseph Marie Jacquard" [Between legend and
       reality: The problems of the Joseph Marie Jacquard mechanism],
       Bulletin Municipal de la Ville de Lyon, No. 5219, 3 May 1998.
   12. ^ Huchard, Jean. "Entre la legende et la realite: Le veritable
       inventeur de la mecanique dite `a la Jacquard" [Between legend and
       reality: The true inventor of the so-called Jacquard mechanism],
       Bulletin Municipal de la Ville de Lyon, No. 5220, 10 May 1998.
   13. ^ ^a ^b ^c Delve (2007), p. 100.
   14. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition
   15. ^ Razy, C. (1913), p.120.
   16. ^ From cave paintings to the internet at HistoryofScience.com
   17. ^ Hyman, Anthony, ed. Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles
       Babbage, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989, p.
   18. ^ Gross, Benjamin (Fall 2015). "The French connection".
       Distillations Magazine. 1 (3): 10-13. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
   19. ^ Kreindl, Fritz (8 May 1935) "Jacquards Prinzip bereits 200 Jahre
       alt?" [Jacquard principle already 200 years old?], Sonderdruck aus
       Melliand Textilberichte, Heidelberg 2, pp. 1-2. Kreindl claims that
       in or before 1740, a member of the Ortner family of Muhlviertel in
       Upper Austria independently invented a mechanism similar to
       Bouchon's, except that instead of using perforated paper, the
       mechanism was controlled by a strip of canvas to which pegs had
       been attached.
   20. ^ Usher, Abbott Payson. A History of Mechanical Invention, revised
       ed., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1954, p.
   21. ^ Bell, T. F. Jacquard Weaving and Designing, London: Longmans,
       Green, and Co., 1895, pp. 18-20. Detailed illustrations of
       Bouchon's mechanism and explanations of its operation.
   22. ^ Bell (1895), pp. 19-22. Detailed illustrations of Falcon's
       mechanism and explanations of its operation.
   23. ^ Usher (1954), p. 291.
   24. ^ Barlow (1878), p. 146.
   25. ^ ^a ^b Perez, Liliane. "Inventing in a world of guilds: Silk
       fabrics in eighteenth-century Lyon" in Guilds, Innovation, and the
       European Economy, 1400-1800, Stephan R. Epstein and Maarten Roy
       Prak, ed.s, (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2008),
       p. 242.
   26. ^ Usher (1954), p. 292.
   27. ^ Bell (1895), pp. 22-23.
   28. ^ Barlow (1878), p. 141.
   29. ^ Photograph of a replica of Vaucanson's loom, Conservatoire des
       Arts et Metiers in Paris
   30. ^ Eymard (1863), p. 11.
   31. ^ Bell (1895), p. 23.

Further reading[edit]


   Essinger, James (2004). Jacquard's Web: How a Hand-Loom Led to the
   Birth of the Information Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

     Razy, C. (1913). Etude analytique des petits modeles de metiers
   exposes au musee des tissus. Lyon, France: Musee historique des tissus.

     de Lamartine, Alphonse (1864). Jacquard. Paris: Michel Levy Freres.

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