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History of operating systems

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   History of computing
     * Hardware before 1960
     * Hardware 1960s to present

     * Software
     * Unix
     * Free software and open-source software

   Computer science
     * Artificial intelligence
     * Compiler construction
     * Early computer science
     * Operating systems
     * Programming languages
     * Prominent pioneers
     * Software engineering

   Modern concepts
     * General-purpose CPUs
     * Graphical user interface
     * Internet
     * Laptops
     * Personal computers
     * Video games
     * World Wide Web

   By country
     * Bulgaria
     * Poland
     * Romania
     * Soviet Bloc
     * Soviet Union
     * Yugoslavia

   Timeline of computing
     * before 1950
     * 1950-1979
     * 1980-1989
     * 1990-1999
     * 2000-2009
     * 2010-2019
     * 2020-2029
     * more timelines ...

   Glossary of computer science
     * Category Category

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Computer operating systems (OSes) provide a set of functions needed and
   used by most application programs on a computer, and the links needed
   to control and synchronize computer hardware. On the first computers,
   with no operating system, every program needed the full hardware
   specification to run correctly and perform standard tasks, and its own
   drivers for peripheral devices like printers and punched paper card
   readers. The growing complexity of hardware and application programs
   eventually made operating systems a necessity for everyday use.
   [ ]


     * 1 Background
     * 2 Mainframes
          + 2.1 Systems on IBM hardware
          + 2.2 Other mainframe operating systems
     * 3 Minicomputers
     * 4 Microcomputers
          + 4.1 Home computers
          + 4.2 Operating systems in video games and consoles
          + 4.3 Personal computer era
          + 4.4 Mobile operating systems
     * 5 Rise of virtualization
     * 6 See also
     * 7 Notes
     * 8 References
     * 9 Further reading


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   The earliest computers were mainframes that lacked any form of
   operating system. Each user had sole use of the machine for a scheduled
   period of time and would arrive at the computer with program and data,
   often on punched paper cards and magnetic or paper tape. The program
   would be loaded into the machine, and the machine would be set to work
   until the program completed or crashed. Programs could generally be
   debugged via a control panel using dials, toggle switches and panel

   Symbolic languages, assemblers,^[1]^[2]^[3] and compilers were
   developed for programmers to translate symbolic program-code into
   machine code that previously would have been hand-encoded. Later
   machines came with libraries of support code on punched cards or
   magnetic tape, which would be linked to the user's program to assist in
   operations such as input and output. This was the genesis of the
   modern-day operating system; however, machines still ran a single job
   at a time. At Cambridge University in England the job queue was at one
   time a washing line from which tapes were hung with different colored
   clothes-pegs to indicate job-priority.^[citation needed]

   As machines became more powerful the time to run programs diminished,
   and the time to hand off the equipment to the next user became large by
   comparison. Accounting for and paying for machine usage moved on from
   checking the wall clock to automatic logging by the computer. Run
   queues evolved from a literal queue of people at the door, to a heap of
   media on a jobs-waiting table, or batches of punch-cards stacked one on
   top of the other in the reader, until the machine itself was able to
   select and sequence which magnetic tape drives processed which tapes.
   Where program developers had originally had access to run their own
   jobs on the machine, they were supplanted by dedicated machine
   operators who looked after the machine and were less and less concerned
   with implementing tasks manually. When commercially available computer
   centers were faced with the implications of data lost through tampering
   or operational errors, equipment vendors were put under pressure to
   enhance the runtime libraries to prevent misuse of system resources.
   Automated monitoring was needed not just for CPU usage but for counting
   pages printed, cards punched, cards read, disk storage used and for
   signaling when operator intervention was required by jobs such as
   changing magnetic tapes and paper forms. Security features were added
   to operating systems to record audit trails of which programs were
   accessing which files and to prevent access to a production payroll
   file by an engineering program, for example.

   All these features were building up towards the repertoire of a fully
   capable operating system. Eventually the runtime libraries became an
   amalgamated program that was started before the first customer job and
   could read in the customer job, control its execution, record its
   usage, reassign hardware resources after the job ended, and immediately
   go on to process the next job. These resident background programs,
   capable of managing multi step processes, were often called monitors or
   monitor-programs before the term "operating system" established itself.

   An underlying program offering basic hardware-management,
   software-scheduling and resource-monitoring may seem a remote ancestor
   to the user-oriented OSes of the personal computing era. But there has
   been a shift in the meaning of OS. Just as early automobiles lacked
   speedometers, radios, and air-conditioners which later became standard,
   more and more optional software features became standard features in
   every OS package, although some applications such as database
   management systems and spreadsheets remain optional and separately
   priced. This has led to the perception of an OS as a complete
   user-system with an integrated graphical user interface, utilities,
   some applications such as text editors and file managers, and
   configuration tools.

   The true descendant of the early operating systems is what is now
   called the "kernel". In technical and development circles the old
   restricted sense of an OS persists because of the continued active
   development of embedded operating systems for all kinds of devices with
   a data-processing component, from hand-held gadgets up to industrial
   robots and real-time control-systems, which do not run user
   applications at the front-end. An embedded OS in a device today is not
   so far removed as one might think from its ancestor of the 1950s.

   The broader categories of systems and application software are
   discussed in the computer software article.


   The first operating system used for real work was GM-NAA I/O, produced
   in 1956 by General Motors' Research division^[4] for its IBM
   704.^[5]^[specify] Most other early operating systems for IBM
   mainframes were also produced by customers.^[6]

   Early operating systems were very diverse, with each vendor or customer
   producing one or more operating systems specific to their particular
   mainframe computer. Every operating system, even from the same vendor,
   could have radically different models of commands, operating
   procedures, and such facilities as debugging aids. Typically, each time
   the manufacturer brought out a new machine, there would be a new
   operating system, and most applications would have to be manually
   adjusted, recompiled, and retested.

Systems on IBM hardware[edit]

   Main article: History of IBM mainframe operating systems

   The state of affairs continued until the 1960s when IBM, already a
   leading hardware vendor, stopped work on existing systems and put all
   its effort into developing the System/360 series of machines, all of
   which used the same instruction and input/output architecture. IBM
   intended to develop a single operating system for the new hardware, the
   OS/360. The problems encountered in the development of the OS/360 are
   legendary, and are described by Fred Brooks in The Mythical
   Man-Month--a book that has become a classic of software engineering.
   Because of performance differences across the hardware range and delays
   with software development, a whole family of operating systems was
   introduced instead of a single OS/360.^[7]^[8]

   IBM wound up releasing a series of stop-gaps followed by two
   longer-lived operating systems:
     * OS/360 for mid-range and large systems. This was available in three
       system generation options:
          + PCP for early users and for those without the resources for
          + MFT for mid-range systems, replaced by MFT-II in OS/360
            Release 15/16. This had one successor, OS/VS1, which was
            discontinued in the 1980s.
          + MVT for large systems. This was similar in most ways to PCP
            and MFT (most programs could be ported among the three without
            being re-compiled), but has more sophisticated memory
            management and a time-sharing facility, TSO. MVT had several
            successors including the current z/OS.
     * DOS/360 for small System/360 models had several successors
       including the current z/VSE. It was significantly different from

   IBM maintained full compatibility with the past, so that programs
   developed in the sixties can still run under z/VSE (if developed for
   DOS/360) or z/OS (if developed for MFT or MVT) with no change.

   IBM also developed TSS/360, a time-sharing system for the System/360
   Model 67. Overcompensating for their perceived importance of developing
   a timeshare system, they set hundreds of developers to work on the
   project. Early releases of TSS were slow and unreliable; by the time
   TSS had acceptable performance and reliability, IBM wanted its TSS
   users to migrate to OS/360 and OS/VS2; while IBM offered a TSS/370
   PRPQ, they dropped it after 3 releases.^[9]

   Several operating systems for the IBM S/360 and S/370 architectures
   were developed by third parties, including the Michigan Terminal System
   (MTS) and MUSIC/SP.

Other mainframe operating systems[edit]

   Control Data Corporation developed the SCOPE operating systems^[NB 1]
   in the 1960s, for batch processing and later developed the MACE
   operating system for time sharing, which was the basis for the later
   Kronos. In cooperation with the University of Minnesota, the Kronos and
   later the NOS operating systems were developed during the 1970s, which
   supported simultaneous batch and time sharing use. Like many commercial
   time sharing systems, its interface was an extension of the DTSS time
   sharing system, one of the pioneering efforts in timesharing and
   programming languages.

   In the late 1970s, Control Data and the University of Illinois
   developed the PLATO system, which used plasma panel displays and
   long-distance time sharing networks. PLATO was remarkably innovative
   for its time; the shared memory model of PLATO's TUTOR programming
   language allowed applications such as real-time chat and multi-user
   graphical games.

   For the UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC, the first commercial computer
   manufacturer, produced the EXEC I operating system, and Computer
   Sciences Corporation developed the EXEC II operating system and
   delivered it to UNIVAC. EXEC II was ported to the UNIVAC 1108. Later,
   UNIVAC developed the EXEC 8 operating system for the 1108; it was the
   basis for operating systems for later members of the family. Like all
   early mainframe systems, EXEC I and EXEC II were a batch-oriented
   system that managed magnetic drums, disks, card readers and line
   printers; EXEC 8 supported both batch processing and on-line
   transaction processing. In the 1970s, UNIVAC produced the Real-Time
   Basic (RTB) system to support large-scale time sharing, also patterned
   after the Dartmouth BASIC system.

   Burroughs Corporation introduced the B5000 in 1961 with the MCP (Master
   Control Program) operating system. The B5000 was a stack machine
   designed to exclusively support high-level languages, with no software,
   not even at the lowest level of the operating system, being written
   directly in machine language or assembly language; the MCP was the
   first^[citation needed] OS to be written entirely in a high-level
   language - ESPOL, a dialect of ALGOL 60 - although ESPOL had
   specialized statements for each "syllable"^[NB 2] in the B5000
   instruction set. MCP also introduced many other ground-breaking
   innovations, such as being one of^[NB 3] the first commercial
   implementations of virtual memory. The rewrite of MCP for the B6500 is
   still in use today in the Unisys ClearPath/MCP line of computers.

   GE introduced the GE-600 series with the General Electric Comprehensive
   Operating Supervisor (GECOS) operating system in 1962. After Honeywell
   acquired GE's computer business, it was renamed to General
   Comprehensive Operating System (GCOS). Honeywell expanded the use of
   the GCOS name to cover all its operating systems in the 1970s, though
   many of its computers had nothing in common with the earlier GE 600
   series and their operating systems were not derived from the original

   Project MAC at MIT, working with GE and Bell Labs, developed Multics,
   which introduced the concept of ringed security privilege levels.

   Digital Equipment Corporation developed TOPS-10 for its PDP-10 line of
   36-bit computers in 1967. Before the widespread use of Unix, TOPS-10
   was a particularly popular system in universities, and in the early
   ARPANET community. Bolt, Beranek, and Newman developed TENEX for a
   modified PDP-10 that supported demand paging; this was another popular
   system in the research and ARPANET communities, and was later developed
   by DEC into TOPS-20.

   Scientific Data Systems/Xerox Data Systems developed several operating
   systems for the Sigma series of computers, such as the Basic Control
   Monitor (BCM), Batch Processing Monitor (BPM), and Basic Time-Sharing
   Monitor (BTM). Later, BPM and BTM were succeeded by the Universal
   Time-Sharing System (UTS); it was designed to provide multi-programming
   services for online (interactive) user programs in addition to
   batch-mode production jobs, It was succeeded by the CP-V operating
   system, which combined UTS with the heavily batch-oriented Xerox
   Operating System.


   Digital Equipment Corporation created several operating systems for its
   16-bit PDP-11 machines, including the simple RT-11 system, the
   time-sharing RSTS operating systems, and the RSX-11 family of real-time
   operating systems, as well as the VMS system for the 32-bit VAX

   Several competitors of Digital Equipment Corporation such as Data
   General, Hewlett-Packard, and Computer Automation created their own
   operating systems. One such, "MAX III", was developed for Modular
   Computer Systems Modcomp II and Modcomp III computers. It was
   characterised by its target market being the industrial control market.
   The Fortran libraries included one that enabled access to measurement
   and control devices.

   IBM's key innovation in operating systems in this class (which they
   call "mid-range"), was their "CPF" for the System/38. This had
   capability-based addressing, used a machine interface architecture to
   isolate the application software and most of the operating system from
   hardware dependencies (including even such details as address size and
   register size) and included an integrated RDBMS. The succeeding OS/400
   for the AS/400 has no files, only objects of different types and these
   objects persist in very large, flat virtual memory, called a
   single-level store. i5/OS and later IBM i for the iSeries continue this
   line of operating system.

   The Unix operating system was developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories in
   the late 1960s, originally for the PDP-7, and later for the PDP-11.
   Because it was essentially free in early editions, easily obtainable,
   and easily modified, it achieved wide acceptance. It also became a
   requirement within the Bell systems operating companies. Since it was
   written in the C language, when that language was ported to a new
   machine architecture, Unix was also able to be ported. This portability
   permitted it to become the choice for a second generation of
   minicomputers and the first generation of workstations. By widespread
   use it exemplified the idea of an operating system that was
   conceptually the same across various hardware platforms, and later
   became one of the roots of free software and open-source software
   operating system projects including GNU, Linux, and the Berkeley
   Software Distribution. Apple's macOS is also based on Unix via
   NeXTSTEP^[10] and FreeBSD.^[11]

   The Pick operating system was another operating system available on a
   wide variety of hardware brands. Commercially released in 1973 its core
   was a BASIC-like language called Data/BASIC and a SQL-style database
   manipulation language called ENGLISH. Licensed to a large variety of
   manufacturers and vendors, by the early 1980s observers saw the Pick
   operating system as a strong competitor to Unix.^[12]


   Beginning in the mid-1970s, a new class of small computers came onto
   the marketplace. Featuring 8-bit processors, typically the MOS
   Technology 6502, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800 or the Zilog Z80, along with
   rudimentary input and output interfaces and as much RAM as practical,
   these systems started out as kit-based hobbyist computers but soon
   evolved into an essential business tool.

Home computers[edit]

   While many eight-bit home computers of the 1980s, such as the BBC
   Micro, Commodore 64, Apple II series, the Atari 8-bit, the Amstrad CPC,
   ZX Spectrum series and others could load a third-party disk-loading
   operating system, such as CP/M or GEOS, they were generally used
   without one. Their built-in operating systems were designed in an era
   when floppy disk drives were very expensive and not expected to be used
   by most users, so the standard storage device on most was a tape drive
   using standard compact cassettes. Most, if not all, of these computers
   shipped with a built-in BASIC interpreter on ROM, which also served as
   a crude command line interface, allowing the user to load a separate
   disk operating system to perform file management commands and load and
   save to disk. The most popular^[citation needed] home computer, the
   Commodore 64, was a notable exception, as its DOS was on ROM in the
   disk drive hardware, and the drive was addressed identically to
   printers, modems, and other external devices.

   Furthermore, those systems shipped with minimal amounts of computer
   memory--4-8 kilobytes was standard on early home computers--as well as
   8-bit processors without specialized support circuitry like an MMU or
   even a dedicated real-time clock. On this hardware, a complex operating
   system's overhead supporting multiple tasks and users would likely
   compromise the performance of the machine without really being needed.
   As those systems were largely sold complete, with a fixed hardware
   configuration, there was also no need for an operating system to
   provide drivers for a wide range of hardware to abstract away

   Video games and even the available spreadsheet, database and word
   processors for home computers were mostly self-contained programs that
   took over the machine completely. Although integrated software existed
   for these computers, they usually lacked features compared to their
   standalone equivalents, largely due to memory limitations. Data
   exchange was mostly performed through standard formats like ASCII text
   or CSV, or through specialized file conversion programs.

Operating systems in video games and consoles[edit]

   Since virtually all video game consoles and arcade cabinets designed
   and built after 1980 were true digital machines based on
   microprocessors (unlike the earlier Pong clones and derivatives), some
   of them carried a minimal form of BIOS or built-in game, such as the
   ColecoVision, the Sega Master System and the SNK Neo Geo.

   Modern-day game consoles and videogames, starting with the PC-Engine,
   all have a minimal BIOS that also provides some interactive utilities
   such as memory card management, audio or video CD playback, copy
   protection and sometimes carry libraries for developers to use etc. Few
   of these cases, however, would qualify as a true operating system.

   The most notable exceptions are probably the Dreamcast game console
   which includes a minimal BIOS, like the PlayStation, but can load the
   Windows CE operating system from the game disk allowing easily porting
   of games from the PC world, and the Xbox game console, which is little
   more than a disguised Intel-based PC running a secret, modified version
   of Microsoft Windows in the background. Furthermore, there are Linux
   versions that will run on a Dreamcast and later game consoles as well.

   Long before that, Sony had released a kind of development kit called
   the Net Yaroze for its first PlayStation platform, which provided a
   series of programming and developing tools to be used with a normal PC
   and a specially modified "Black PlayStation" that could be interfaced
   with a PC and download programs from it. These operations require in
   general a functional OS on both platforms involved.

   In general, it can be said that videogame consoles and arcade
   coin-operated machines used at most a built-in BIOS during the 1970s,
   1980s and most of the 1990s, while from the PlayStation era and beyond
   they started getting more and more sophisticated, to the point of
   requiring a generic or custom-built OS for aiding in development and

Personal computer era[edit]

   The development of microprocessors made inexpensive computing available
   for the small business and hobbyist, which in turn led to the
   widespread use of interchangeable hardware components using a common
   interconnection (such as the S-100, SS-50, Apple II, ISA, and PCI
   buses), and an increasing need for "standard" operating systems to
   control them. The most important of the early OSes on these machines
   was Digital Research's CP/M-80 for the 8080 / 8085 / Z-80 CPUs. It was
   based on several Digital Equipment Corporation operating systems,
   mostly for the PDP-11 architecture. Microsoft's first operating system,
   MDOS/MIDAS, was designed along many of the PDP-11 features, but for
   microprocessor based systems. MS-DOS, or PC DOS when supplied by IBM,
   was designed to be similar to CP/M-80.^[13] Each of these machines had
   a small boot program in ROM which loaded the OS itself from disk. The
   BIOS on the IBM-PC class machines was an extension of this idea and has
   accreted more features and functions in the 20 years since the first
   IBM-PC was introduced in 1981.

   The decreasing cost of display equipment and processors made it
   practical to provide graphical user interfaces for many operating
   systems, such as the generic X Window System that is provided with many
   Unix systems, or other graphical systems such as Apple's classic Mac OS
   and macOS, the Radio Shack Color Computer's OS-9 Level II/MultiVue,
   Commodore's AmigaOS, Atari TOS, IBM's OS/2, and Microsoft Windows. The
   original GUI was developed on the Xerox Alto computer system at Xerox
   Palo Alto Research Center in the early 1970s and commercialized by many
   vendors throughout the 1980s and 1990s.

   Since the late 1990s, there have been three operating systems in
   widespread use on personal computers: Apple Inc.'s macOS, the open
   source Linux, and Microsoft Windows. Since 2005 and the Mac transition
   to Intel processors, all have been developed mainly on the x86
   platform, although macOS retained PowerPC support until 2009 and Linux
   remains ported to a multitude of architectures including ones such as
   68k, PA-RISC, and DEC Alpha, which have been long superseded and out of
   production, and SPARC and MIPS, which are used in servers or embedded
   systems but no longer for desktop computers. Other operating systems
   such as AmigaOS and OS/2 remain in use, if at all, mainly by
   retrocomputing enthusiasts or for specialized embedded applications.

Mobile operating systems[edit]

   This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
   section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may
   be challenged and removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to
   remove this template message)
   Android is the most used mobile operating system.

   In the early 1990s, Psion released the Psion Series 3 PDA, a small
   mobile computing device. It supported user-written applications running
   on an operating system called EPOC. Later versions of EPOC became
   Symbian, an operating system used for mobile phones from Nokia,
   Ericsson, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, Samsung and phones developed for NTT
   Docomo by Sharp, Fujitsu & Mitsubishi. Symbian was the world's most
   widely used smartphone operating system until 2010 with a peak market
   share of 74% in 2006. In 1996, Palm Computing released the Pilot 1000
   and Pilot 5000, running Palm OS. Microsoft Windows CE was the base for
   Pocket PC 2000, renamed Windows Mobile in 2003, which at its peak in
   2007 was the most common operating system for smartphones in the U.S.

   In 2007, Apple introduced the iPhone and its operating system, known as
   simply iPhone OS (until the release of iOS 4), which, like Mac OS X, is
   based on the Unix-like Darwin. In addition to these underpinnings, it
   also introduced a powerful and innovative graphic user interface that
   was later also used on the tablet computer iPad. A year later, Android,
   with its own graphical user interface, was introduced, based on a
   modified Linux kernel, and Microsoft re-entered the mobile operating
   system market with Windows Phone in 2010, which was replaced by Windows
   10 Mobile in 2015.

   In addition to these, a wide range of other mobile operating systems
   are contending in this area.

Rise of virtualization[edit]

   Operating systems originally ran directly on the hardware itself and
   provided services to applications, but with virtualization, the
   operating system itself runs under the control of a hypervisor, instead
   of being in direct control of the hardware.

   On mainframes IBM introduced the notion of a virtual machine in 1968
   with CP/CMS on the IBM System/360 Model 67, and extended this later in
   1972 with Virtual Machine Facility/370 (VM/370) on System/370.

   On x86-based personal computers, VMware popularized this technology
   with their 1999 product, VMware Workstation,^[14] and their 2001 VMware
   GSX Server and VMware ESX Server products.^[15] Later, a wide range of
   products from others, including Xen, KVM and Hyper-V meant that by 2010
   it was reported that more than 80 percent of enterprises had a
   virtualization program or project in place, and that 25 percent of all
   server workloads would be in a virtual machine.^[16]

   Over time, the line between virtual machines, monitors, and operating
   systems was blurred:
     * Hypervisors grew more complex, gaining their own application
       programming interface,^[17] memory management or file system.^[18]
     * Virtualization becomes a key feature of operating systems, as
       exemplified by KVM and LXC in Linux, Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008
       or HP Integrity Virtual Machines in HP-UX.
     * In some systems, such as POWER5 and POWER6-based servers from IBM,
       the hypervisor is no longer optional.^[19]
     * Radically simplified operating systems, such as CoreOS have been
       designed to run only on virtual systems.^[20]
     * Applications have been re-designed to run directly on a virtual
       machine monitor.^[21]

   In many ways, virtual machine software today plays the role formerly
   held by the operating system, including managing the hardware resources
   (processor, memory, I/O devices), applying scheduling policies, or
   allowing system administrators to manage the system.

See also[edit]

     * icon Computer programming portal

     * Charles Babbage Institute
     * IT History Society
     * List of operating systems
     * Timeline of operating systems
     * History of computer icons


    1. ^ CDC used the SCOPE name for disparate operating systems on the
       upper 3000 series, the lower 3000 series, the 6000 series and the
    2. ^ A syllable in the B5000 could contain a 10-bit literal, an
       operand call, a descriptor call or a 10-bit opcode.
    3. ^ The B5000 was contemporaneous with the Ferranti Atlas


    1. ^ 705 Autocoder System Macro Instruction Manual (PDF) (second ed.),
       February 1957, 22-6726-1
    2. ^ The USE Compiler Programming Manual for the UNIVAC Scientific
       1103A and 1105 Computers (PDF)
    3. ^ A Programmer's Guide to the X-6 Assembly System (PDF), U 1774.1
    4. ^ Robert Patrick (January 1987). "General Motors/North American
       Monitor for the IBM 704 Computer" (PDF). RAND Corporation.
    5. ^ "Timeline of Computer History: 1956: Software". Computer History
       Museum. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
    6. ^ "A Brief History of Linux". Archived from the original on
       2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-11-05.
    7. ^ Johnston (April 1, 2005). "VSE: A Look at the Past 40 Years".
       z/Journal. Thomas Communications, Inc. (April/May 2005). Archived
       from the original on March 4, 2009.
    8. ^ Chuck Boyer, The 360 Revolution
    9. ^ "IBM 360/370/3090/390". Lars Poulsen, 26 Oct. 2001, Computer
       History. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
   10. ^ Chris Foresman (19 December 2012). "The legacy of NeXT lives on
       in OS X".
   11. ^ "Apple's Operating System Guru Goes Back to His Roots", Klint
       Finley, 8 August 2013, wired.com
   12. ^ Fiedler, Ryan (October 1983). "The Unix Tutorial / Part 3: Unix
       in the Microcomputer Marketplace". BYTE. p. 132. Retrieved 30
       January 2015.
   13. ^ Bob Zeidman (August 6, 2016). "Was DOS copied from CP/M?".
   14. ^ "VMware company history". Archived from the original on
   15. ^ "VMware ready to capitalize on hot server market". June 30, 2000.
   16. ^ "Gartner: 1 in 4 server workloads will be virtual by year-end",
       Sep 27 2010, Jon Brodkin, Network World
   17. ^ "VMware API". VMware. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
   18. ^ "VMware file system". Retrieved 26 November 2008.
   19. ^ "PowerVM Virtualization on IBM System p: Introduction and
       Configuration". Retrieved 26 November 2008.
   20. ^ "Snappy Ubuntu challenges CoreOS and Project Atomic on
       lightweight cloud servers", Dec 10, 2014, Steven J.
       Vaughan-Nichols, ZDNet.com
   21. ^ "JRockit's Liquid VM could be the first real Java OS". Retrieved
       26 November 2008.

Further reading[edit]


   Neal Stephenson (1999). In the Beginning... Was the Command Line.
   Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-380-81593-1.
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