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   First electronic general-purpose digital computer


   Pennsylvania Historical Marker
   ENIAC Penn1.jpg
   Four ENIAC panels and one of its three function tables, on display at
   the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of
   Location University of Pennsylvania Department of Computer and
   Information Science, 3330 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
   39DEG57'08''N 75DEG11'26''W / 39.9523DEGN
   75.1906DEGW / 39.9523; -75.1906Coordinates: 39DEG57'08''N
   75DEG11'26''W / 39.9523DEGN 75.1906DEGW /
   39.9523; -75.1906
   Built/founded 1945
   PHMC dedicated Thursday, June 15, 2000
   Glenn A. Beck (background) and Betty Snyder (foreground) program ENIAC
   in BRL building 328. (U.S. Army photo, c. 1947-1955)

   ENIAC (/|Eniaek/; Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)^[1]^[2]
   was the first programmable, electronic, general-purpose digital
   computer, completed in 1945.^[3]^[4] There were other computers that
   had these features, but the ENIAC had all of them in one package. It
   was Turing-complete and able to solve "a large class of numerical
   problems" through reprogramming.^[5]^[6]

   Although ENIAC was designed and primarily used to calculate artillery
   firing tables for the United States Army's Ballistic Research
   Laboratory (which later became a part of the Army Research
   Laboratory),^[7]^[8] its first program was a study of the feasibility
   of the thermonuclear weapon.^[9]^[10]

   ENIAC was completed in 1945 and first put to work for practical
   purposes on December 10, 1945.^[11]

   ENIAC was formally dedicated at the University of Pennsylvania on
   February 15, 1946, having cost $487,000 (equivalent to $5,900,000 in
   2020), and was heralded as a "Giant Brain" by the press.^[12] It had a
   speed on the order of one thousand times faster than that of
   electro-mechanical machines; this computational power, coupled with
   general-purpose programmability, excited scientists and industrialists
   alike. The combination of speed and programmability allowed for
   thousands more calculations for problems. As ENIAC calculated a
   trajectory in 30 seconds that took a human 20 hours, one ENIAC could
   replace 2,400 humans.^[13]

   ENIAC was formally accepted by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in July
   1946. It was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947,
   where it was in continuous operation until 1955.
   [ ]


     * 1 Development and design
          + 1.1 Components
          + 1.2 Operation times
          + 1.3 Reliability
     * 2 Programming
          + 2.1 Programmers
          + 2.2 Role in the hydrogen bomb
          + 2.3 Role in development of the Monte Carlo methods
     * 3 Later developments
          + 3.1 Role in the development of the EDVAC
          + 3.2 Improvements
     * 4 Comparison with other early computers
          + 4.1 Public knowledge
          + 4.2 Patent
     * 5 Main parts
          + 5.1 Parts on display
     * 6 Recognition
     * 7 See also
     * 8 Notes
     * 9 References
     * 10 Further reading
     * 11 External links

Development and design[edit]

   ENIAC's design and construction was financed by the United States Army,
   Ordnance Corps, Research and Development Command, led by Major General
   Gladeon M. Barnes. The total cost was about $487,000, equivalent to
   $5,940,000 in 2020.^[14] The construction contract was signed on June
   5, 1943; work on the computer began in secret at the University of
   Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering^[15] the
   following month, under the code name "Project PX", with John Grist
   Brainerd as principal investigator. Herman H. Goldstine persuaded the
   Army to fund the project, which put him in charge to oversee it for

   ENIAC was designed by Ursinus College physics professor John Mauchly
   and J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania, U.S.^[17] The
   team of design engineers assisting the development included Robert F.
   Shaw (function tables), Jeffrey Chuan Chu (divider/square-rooter),
   Thomas Kite Sharpless (master programmer), Frank Mural (master
   programmer), Arthur Burks (multiplier), Harry Huskey (reader/printer)
   and Jack Davis (accumulators).^[18] Significant development work was
   undertaken by the female mathematicians who handled the bulk of the
   ENIAC programming: Jean Jennings, Marlyn Wescoff, Ruth Lichterman,
   Betty Snyder, Frances Bilas, and Kay McNulty.^[19] In 1946, the
   researchers resigned from the University of Pennsylvania and formed the
   Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation.

   ENIAC was a large, modular computer, composed of individual panels to
   perform different functions. Twenty of these modules were accumulators
   that could not only add and subtract, but hold a ten-digit decimal
   number in memory. Numbers were passed between these units across
   several general-purpose buses (or trays, as they were called). In order
   to achieve its high speed, the panels had to send and receive numbers,
   compute, save the answer and trigger the next operation, all without
   any moving parts. Key to its versatility was the ability to branch; it
   could trigger different operations, depending on the sign of a computed


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   By the end of its operation in 1956, ENIAC contained 18,000 vacuum
   tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000
   capacitors, and approximately 5,000,000 hand-soldered joints. It
   weighed more than 30 short tons (27 t), was roughly 8 ft * 3 ft
   * 100 ft (2 m * 1 m * 30 m) in size, occupied 1,800 sq ft (170 m^2) and
   consumed 150 kW of electricity.^[20]^[21] This power requirement led to
   the rumor that whenever the computer was switched on, lights in
   Philadelphia dimmed.^[22] Input was possible from an IBM card reader
   and an IBM card punch was used for output. These cards could be used to
   produce printed output offline using an IBM accounting machine, such as
   the IBM 405. While ENIAC had no system to store memory in its
   inception, these punch cards could be used for external memory
   storage.^[23] In 1953, a 100-word magnetic-core memory built by the
   Burroughs Corporation was added to ENIAC.^[24]

   ENIAC used ten-position ring counters to store digits; each digit
   required 36 vacuum tubes, 10 of which were the dual triodes making up
   the flip-flops of the ring counter. Arithmetic was performed by
   "counting" pulses with the ring counters and generating carry pulses if
   the counter "wrapped around", the idea being to electronically emulate
   the operation of the digit wheels of a mechanical adding machine.^[25]

   ENIAC had 20 ten-digit signed accumulators, which used ten's complement
   representation and could perform 5,000 simple addition or subtraction
   operations between any of them and a source (e.g., another accumulator
   or a constant transmitter) per second. It was possible to connect
   several accumulators to run simultaneously, so the peak speed of
   operation was potentially much higher, due to parallel
   Cpl. Irwin Goldstein (foreground) sets the switches on one of ENIAC's
   function tables at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. (U.S.
   Army photo)^[28]

   It was possible to wire the carry of one accumulator into another
   accumulator to perform arithmetic with double the precision, but the
   accumulator carry circuit timing prevented the wiring of three or more
   for even higher precision. ENIAC used four of the accumulators
   (controlled by a special multiplier unit) to perform up to 385
   multiplication operations per second; five of the accumulators were
   controlled by a special divider/square-rooter unit to perform up to 40
   division operations per second or three square root operations per

   The other nine units in ENIAC were the initiating unit (started and
   stopped the machine), the cycling unit (used for synchronizing the
   other units), the master programmer (controlled loop sequencing), the
   reader (controlled an IBM punch-card reader), the printer (controlled
   an IBM card punch), the constant transmitter, and three function

Operation times[edit]

   The references by Rojas and Hashagen (or Wilkes)^[17] give more details
   about the times for operations, which differ somewhat from those stated

   The basic machine cycle was 200 microseconds (20 cycles of the 100 kHz
   clock in the cycling unit), or 5,000 cycles per second for operations
   on the 10-digit numbers. In one of these cycles, ENIAC could write a
   number to a register, read a number from a register, or add/subtract
   two numbers.

   A multiplication of a 10-digit number by a d-digit number (for d up to
   10) took d+4 cycles, so a 10- by 10-digit multiplication took 14
   cycles, or 2,800 microseconds--a rate of 357 per second. If one of the
   numbers had fewer than 10 digits, the operation was faster.

   Division and square roots took 13(d+1) cycles, where d is the number of
   digits in the result (quotient or square root). So a division or square
   root took up to 143 cycles, or 28,600 microseconds--a rate of 35 per
   second. (Wilkes 1956:20^[17] states that a division with a 10 digit
   quotient required 6 milliseconds.) If the result had fewer than ten
   digits, it was obtained faster.

   ENIAC is able to process about 500 FLOPS,^[31] compared to modern
   supercomputers' petascale and exascale computing power.


   ENIAC used common octal-base radio tubes of the day; the decimal
   accumulators were made of 6SN7 flip-flops, while 6L7s, 6SJ7s, 6SA7s and
   6AC7s were used in logic functions.^[32] Numerous 6L6s and 6V6s served
   as line drivers to drive pulses through cables between rack assemblies.

   Several tubes burned out almost every day, leaving ENIAC nonfunctional
   about half the time. Special high-reliability tubes were not available
   until 1948. Most of these failures, however, occurred during the
   warm-up and cool-down periods, when the tube heaters and cathodes were
   under the most thermal stress. Engineers reduced ENIAC's tube failures
   to the more acceptable rate of one tube every two days. According to an
   interview in 1989 with Eckert, "We had a tube fail about every two days
   and we could locate the problem within 15 minutes."^[33] In 1954, the
   longest continuous period of operation without a failure was 116
   hours--close to five days.


   ENIAC could be programmed to perform complex sequences of operations,
   including loops, branches, and subroutines. However, instead of the
   stored-program computers that exist today, ENIAC was just a large
   collection of arithmetic machines, which originally had programs set up
   into the machine^[34] by a combination of plugboard wiring and three
   portable function tables (containing 1,200 ten-way switches each).^[35]
   The task of taking a problem and mapping it onto the machine was
   complex, and usually took weeks. Due to the complexity of mapping
   programs onto the machine, programs were only changed after huge
   numbers of tests of the current program.^[36] After the program was
   figured out on paper, the process of getting the program into ENIAC by
   manipulating its switches and cables could take days. This was followed
   by a period of verification and debugging, aided by the ability to
   execute the program step by step. A programming tutorial for the modulo
   function using an ENIAC simulator gives an impression of what a program
   on the ENIAC looked like.^[37]^[38]

   ENIAC's six primary programmers, Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty
   Snyder, Marlyn Wescoff, Fran Bilas and Ruth Lichterman, not only
   determined how to input ENIAC programs, but also developed an
   understanding of ENIAC's inner workings.^[39]^[40] The programmers were
   often able to narrow bugs down to an individual failed tube which could
   be pointed to for replacement by a technician.^[41]


   Programmers Betty Jean Jennings (left) and Fran Bilas (right) operate
   ENIAC's main control panel at the Moore School of Electrical
   Engineering. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical

   Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Marlyn Meltzer, Fran Bilas,
   and Ruth Lichterman were the first programmers of the ENIAC. They were
   not, as computer scientist and historian Kathryn Kleiman was once told,
   "refrigerator ladies", i.e., models posing in front of the machine for
   press photography.^[42] Nevertheless, some of the women did not receive
   recognition for their work on the ENIAC in their lifetimes.^[19] After
   the war ended, the women continued to work on the ENIAC. Their
   expertise made their positions difficult to replace with returning
   soldiers. The original programmers of the ENIAC were neither recognized
   for their efforts nor known to the public until the mid-1980s.^[43]

   These early programmers were drawn from a group of about two hundred
   women employed as computers at the Moore School of Electrical
   Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. The job of computers was
   to produce the numeric result of mathematical formulas needed for a
   scientific study, or an engineering project. They usually did so with a
   mechanical calculator. The women studied the machine's logic, physical
   structure, operation, and circuitry in order to not only understand the
   mathematics of computing, but also the machine itself.^[19] This was
   one of the few technical job categories available to women at that
   time.^[44] Betty Holberton (nee Snyder) continued on to help write the
   first generative programming system (SORT/MERGE) and help design the
   first commercial electronic computers, the UNIVAC and the BINAC,
   alongside Jean Jennings.^[45] McNulty developed the use of subroutines
   in order to help increase ENIAC's computational capability.^[46]

   Herman Goldstine selected the programmers, whom he called operators,
   from the computers who had been calculating ballistics tables with
   mechanical desk calculators, and a differential analyzer prior to and
   during the development of ENIAC.^[19] Under Herman and Adele
   Goldstine's direction, the computers studied ENIAC's blueprints and
   physical structure to determine how to manipulate its switches and
   cables, as programming languages did not yet exist. Though
   contemporaries considered programming a clerical task and did not
   publicly recognize the programmers' effect on the successful operation
   and announcement of ENIAC,^[19] McNulty, Jennings, Snyder, Wescoff,
   Bilas, and Lichterman have since been recognized for their
   contributions to computing.^[47]^[48]^[49] Three of the current (2020)
   Army supercomputers Jean, Kay, and Betty are named for Jean Bartik
   (Betty Jennings), Kay McNulty, and Betty Snyder respectively.^[50]

   The "programmer" and "operator" job titles were not originally
   considered professions suitable for women. The labor shortage created
   by World War II helped enable the entry of women into the field.^[19]
   However, the field was not viewed as prestigious, and bringing in women
   was viewed as a way to free men up for more skilled labor. Essentially,
   women were seen as meeting a need in a temporary crisis.^[19] For
   example, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics said in 1942,
   "It is felt that enough greater return is obtained by freeing the
   engineers from calculating detail to overcome any increased expenses in
   the computers' salaries. The engineers admit themselves that the girl
   computers do the work more rapidly and accurately than they would. This
   is due in large measure to the feeling among the engineers that their
   college and industrial experience is being wasted and thwarted by mere
   repetitive calculation".^[19]

   Following the initial six programmers, an expanded team of a hundred
   scientists was recruited to continue work on the ENIAC. Among these
   were several women, including Gloria Ruth Gordon.^[51] Adele Goldstine
   wrote the original technical description of the ENIAC.^[52]

Role in the hydrogen bomb[edit]

   Although the Ballistic Research Laboratory was the sponsor of ENIAC,
   one year into this three-year project John von Neumann, a mathematician
   working on the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos National Laboratory, became
   aware of this computer.^[53] Los Alamos subsequently became so involved
   with ENIAC that the first test problem run consisted of computations
   for the hydrogen bomb, not artillery tables.^[8] The input/output for
   this test was one million cards.^[54]

Role in development of the Monte Carlo methods[edit]

   See also: History of Monte Carlo method

   Related to ENIAC's role in the hydrogen bomb was its role in the Monte
   Carlo method becoming popular. Scientists involved in the original
   nuclear bomb development used massive groups of people doing huge
   numbers of calculations ("computers" in the terminology of the time) to
   investigate the distance that neutrons would likely travel through
   various materials. John von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam realized the
   speed of ENIAC would allow these calculations to be done much more
   quickly.^[55] The success of this project showed the value of Monte
   Carlo methods in science.^[56]

Later developments[edit]

   A press conference was held on February 1, 1946,^[19] and the completed
   machine was announced to the public the evening of February 14,
   1946,^[57] featuring demonstrations of its capabilities. Elizabeth
   Snyder and Betty Jean Jennings were responsible for developing the
   demonstration trajectory program, although Herman and Adele Goldstine
   took credit for it.^[19] The machine was formally dedicated the next
   day^[58] at the University of Pennsylvania. None of the women involved
   in programming the machine or creating the demonstration were invited
   to the formal dedication nor to the celebratory dinner held

   The original contract amount was $61,700; the final cost was almost
   $500,000 (approximately equivalent to $8,000,000 in 2021). It was
   formally accepted by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in July 1946. ENIAC
   was shut down on November 9, 1946, for a refurbishment and a memory
   upgrade, and was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in
   1947. There, on July 29, 1947, it was turned on and was in continuous
   operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955.^[2]

Role in the development of the EDVAC[edit]

   A few months after ENIAC's unveiling in the summer of 1946, as part of
   "an extraordinary effort to jump-start research in the field",^[60] the
   Pentagon invited "the top people in electronics and mathematics from
   the United States and Great Britain"^[60] to a series of forty-eight
   lectures given in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; all together called The
   Theory and Techniques for Design of Digital Computers--more often named
   the Moore School Lectures.^[60] Half of these lectures were given by
   the inventors of ENIAC.^[61]

   ENIAC was a one-of-a-kind design and was never repeated. The freeze on
   design in 1943 meant that the computer design would lack some
   innovations that soon became well-developed, notably the ability to
   store a program. Eckert and Mauchly started work on a new design, to be
   later called the EDVAC, which would be both simpler and more powerful.
   In particular, in 1944 Eckert wrote his description of a memory unit
   (the mercury delay line) which would hold both the data and the
   program. John von Neumann, who was consulting for the Moore School on
   the EDVAC, sat in on the Moore School meetings at which the stored
   program concept was elaborated. Von Neumann wrote up an incomplete set
   of notes (First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC) which were intended to
   be used as an internal memorandum--describing, elaborating, and
   couching in formal logical language the ideas developed in the
   meetings. ENIAC administrator and security officer Herman Goldstine
   distributed copies of this First Draft to a number of government and
   educational institutions, spurring widespread interest in the
   construction of a new generation of electronic computing machines,
   including Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) at
   Cambridge University, England and SEAC at the U.S. Bureau of


   A number of improvements were made to ENIAC after 1947, including a
   primitive read-only stored programming mechanism using the function
   tables as program ROM,^[62]^[63]^[64] after which programming was done
   by setting the switches.^[65] The idea has been worked out in several
   variants by Richard Clippinger and his group, on the one hand, and the
   Goldstines, on the other,^[66] and it was included in the ENIAC
   patent.^[67] Clippinger consulted with von Neumann on what instruction
   set to implement.^[62]^[68]^[69] Clippinger had thought of a
   three-address architecture while von Neumann proposed a one-address
   architecture because it was simpler to implement. Three digits of one
   accumulator (#6) were used as the program counter, another accumulator
   (#15) was used as the main accumulator, a third accumulator (#8) was
   used as the address pointer for reading data from the function tables,
   and most of the other accumulators (1-5, 7, 9-14, 17-19) were used for
   data memory.

   In March 1948 the converter unit was installed,^[70] which made
   possible programming through the reader from standard IBM
   cards.^[71]^[72] The "first production run" of the new coding
   techniques on the Monte Carlo problem followed in April.^[70]^[73]
   After ENIAC's move to Aberdeen, a register panel for memory was also
   constructed, but it did not work. A small master control unit to turn
   the machine on and off was also added.^[74]

   The programming of the stored program for ENIAC was done by Betty
   Jennings, Clippinger, Adele Goldstine and others.^[75]^[63]^[62] It was
   first demonstrated as a stored-program computer in April 1948,^[76]
   running a program by Adele Goldstine for John von Neumann. This
   modification reduced the speed of ENIAC by a factor of 6 and eliminated
   the ability of parallel computation, but as it also reduced the
   reprogramming time^[69]^[62] to hours instead of days, it was
   considered well worth the loss of performance. Also analysis had shown
   that due to differences between the electronic speed of computation and
   the electromechanical speed of input/output, almost any real-world
   problem was completely I/O bound, even without making use of the
   original machine's parallelism. Most computations would still be I/O
   bound, even after the speed reduction imposed by this modification.

   Early in 1952, a high-speed shifter was added, which improved the speed
   for shifting by a factor of five. In July 1953, a 100-word expansion
   core memory was added to the system, using binary-coded decimal,
   excess-3 number representation. To support this expansion memory, ENIAC
   was equipped with a new Function Table selector, a memory address
   selector, pulse-shaping circuits, and three new orders were added to
   the programming mechanism.^[62]

Comparison with other early computers[edit]

   Main article: History of computing hardware

   Mechanical computing machines have been around since Archimedes' time
   (see: Antikythera mechanism), but the 1930s and 1940s are considered
   the beginning of the modern computer era.

   ENIAC was, like the IBM Harvard Mark I and the German Z3, able to run
   an arbitrary sequence of mathematical operations, but did not read them
   from a tape. Like the British Colossus, it was programmed by plugboard
   and switches. ENIAC combined full, Turing-complete programmability with
   electronic speed. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), ENIAC, and
   Colossus all used thermionic valves (vacuum tubes). ENIAC's registers
   performed decimal arithmetic, rather than binary arithmetic like the
   Z3, the ABC and Colossus.

   Like the Colossus, ENIAC required rewiring to reprogram until April
   1948.^[77] In June 1948, the Manchester Baby ran its first program and
   earned the distinction of first electronic stored-program
   computer.^[78]^[79]^[80] Though the idea of a stored-program computer
   with combined memory for program and data was conceived during the
   development of ENIAC, it was not initially implemented in ENIAC because
   World War II priorities required the machine to be completed quickly,
   and ENIAC's 20 storage locations would be too small to hold data and

Public knowledge[edit]

   The Z3 and Colossus were developed independently of each other, and of
   the ABC and ENIAC during World War II. Work on the ABC at Iowa State
   University was stopped in 1942 after John Atanasoff was called to
   Washington, D.C., to do physics research for the U.S. Navy, and it was
   subsequently dismantled.^[81] The Z3 was destroyed by the Allied
   bombing raids of Berlin in 1943. As the ten Colossus machines were part
   of the UK's war effort their existence remained secret until the late
   1970s, although knowledge of their capabilities remained among their UK
   staff and invited Americans. ENIAC, by contrast, was put through its
   paces for the press in 1946, "and captured the world's imagination".
   Older histories of computing may therefore not be comprehensive in
   their coverage and analysis of this period. All but two of the Colossus
   machines were dismantled in 1945; the remaining two were used to
   decrypt Soviet messages by GCHQ until the 1960s.^[82]^[83] The public
   demonstration for ENIAC was developed by Snyder and Jennings who
   created a demo that would calculate the trajectory of a missile in 15
   seconds, a task that would have taken several weeks for a human


   Main article: Honeywell v. Sperry Rand

   For a variety of reasons (including Mauchly's June 1941 examination of
   the Atanasoff-Berry computer, prototyped in 1939 by John Atanasoff and
   Clifford Berry), U.S. Patent 3,120,606 for ENIAC, applied for in 1947
   and granted in 1964, was voided by the 1973^[84] decision of the
   landmark federal court case Honeywell, Inc. v. Sperry Rand Corp.,
   putting the invention of the electronic digital computer in the public
   domain and providing legal recognition to Atanasoff as the inventor of
   the first electronic digital computer.

Main parts[edit]

   The bottoms of three accumulators at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, US
   A function table from ENIAC on display at Aberdeen Proving Ground

   The main parts were 40 panels and three portable function tables (named
   A, B, and C). The layout of the panels was (clockwise, starting with
   the left wall):

   Left wall

     * Initiating Unit
     * Cycling Unit
     * Master Programmer - panel 1 and 2
     * Function Table 1 - panel 1 and 2
     * Accumulator 1
     * Accumulator 2
     * Divider and Square Rooter
     * Accumulator 3
     * Accumulator 4
     * Accumulator 5
     * Accumulator 6
     * Accumulator 7
     * Accumulator 8
     * Accumulator 9

   Back wall

     * Accumulator 10
     * High-speed Multiplier - panel 1, 2, and 3
     * Accumulator 11
     * Accumulator 12
     * Accumulator 13
     * Accumulator 14

   Right wall

     * Accumulator 15
     * Accumulator 16
     * Accumulator 17
     * Accumulator 18
     * Function Table 2 - panel 1 and 2
     * Function Table 3 - panel 1 and 2
     * Accumulator 19
     * Accumulator 20
     * Constant Transmitter - panel 1, 2, and 3
     * Printer - panel 1, 2, and 3

   An IBM card reader was attached to Constant Transmitter panel 3 and an
   IBM card punch was attached to Printer Panel 2. The Portable Function
   Tables could be connected to Function Table 1, 2, and 3.^[85]

Parts on display[edit]

   Detail of the back of a section of ENIAC, showing vacuum tubes

   Pieces of ENIAC are held by the following institutions:
     * The School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of
       Pennsylvania has four of the original forty panels (Accumulator
       #18, Constant Transmitter Panel 2, Master Programmer Panel 2, and
       the Cycling Unit) and one of the three function tables (Function
       Table B) of ENIAC (on loan from the Smithsonian).^[85]
     * The Smithsonian has five panels (Accumulators 2, 19, and 20;
       Constant Transmitter panels 1 and 3; Divider and Square Rooter;
       Function Table 2 panel 1; Function Table 3 panel 2; High-speed
       Multiplier panels 1 and 2; Printer panel 1; Initiating Unit)^[85]
       in the National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.^[19]
       (but apparently not currently on display).
     * The Science Museum in London has a receiver unit on display.
     * The Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California has three
       panels (Accumulator #12, Function Table 2 panel 2, and Printer
       Panel 3) and portable function table C on display (on loan from the
       Smithsonian Institution).^[85]
     * The University of Michigan in Ann Arbor has four panels (two
       accumulators, High-speed Multiplier panel 3, and Master Programmer
       panel 2),^[85] salvaged by Arthur Burks.
     * The United States Army Ordnance Museum at Aberdeen Proving Ground,
       Maryland, where ENIAC was used, has Portable Function Table A.
     * The U.S. Army Field Artillery Museum in Fort Sill, as of October
       2014, obtained seven panels of ENIAC that were previously housed by
       The Perot Group in Plano, Texas.^[86] There are accumulators #7,
       #8, #11, and #17;^[87] panel #1 and #2 that connected to function
       table #1,^[85] and the back of a panel showing its tubes. A module
       of tubes is also on display.
     * The United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, has one
       of the data entry terminals from the ENIAC.
     * The Heinz Nixdorf Museum in Paderborn, Germany, has three panels
       (Printer panel 2 and High-speed Function Table)^[85] (on loan from
       the Smithsonian Institution). In 2014 the museum decided to rebuild
       one of the accumulator panels - reconstructed part has the look and
       feel of a simplified counterpart from the original


   ENIAC was named an IEEE Milestone in 1987.^[90]
   ENIAC on a Chip, University of Pennsylvania (1995) - Computer History

   In 1996, in honor of the ENIAC's 50th anniversary, The University of
   Pennsylvania sponsored a project named, "ENIAC-on-a-Chip", where a very
   small silicon computer chip measuring 7.44 mm by 5.29 mm was built with
   the same functionality as ENIAC. Although this 20 MHz chip was many
   times faster than ENIAC, it had but a fraction of the speed of its
   contemporary microprocessors in the late 1990s.^[91]^[92]^[93]

   In 1997, the six women who did most of the programming of ENIAC were
   inducted into the Technology International Hall of Fame.^[47]^[94] The
   role of the ENIAC programmers is treated in a 2010 documentary film
   titled Top Secret Rosies: The Female "Computers" of WWII by LeAnn
   Erickson.^[48] A 2014 documentary short, The Computers by Kate McMahon,
   tells of the story of the six programmers; this was the result of 20
   years' research by Kathryn Kleiman and her team as part of the ENIAC
   Programmers Project.^[49]^[95] In 2022 Grand Central Publishing
   released Proving Ground by Kathy Kleiman, a hardcover biography about
   the six ENIAC programmers and their efforts to translate block diagrams
   and electronic schematics of the ENIAC, then under construction, into
   programs that would be loaded into and run on ENIAC once it was
   available for use.^[96]

   In 2011, in honor of the 65th anniversary of the ENIAC's unveiling, the
   city of Philadelphia declared February 15 as ENIAC Day.^[97]

   The ENIAC celebrated its 70th anniversary on February 15, 2016.^[98]

See also[edit]

     * History of computing
     * History of computing hardware
     * Women in computing
     * List of vacuum-tube computers
     * Military computers
     * Unisys
     * Arthur Burks
     * Betty Holberton
     * Frances Bilas Spence
     * John Mauchly
     * J. Presper Eckert
     * Jean Jennings Bartik
     * Kathleen Antonelli (Kay McNulty)
     * Marlyn Meltzer
     * Ruth Lichterman Teitelbaum


    1. ^ Eckert Jr., John Presper and Mauchly, John W.; Electronic
       Numerical Integrator and Computer, United States Patent Office, US
       Patent 3,120,606, filed 1947-06-26, issued 1964-02-04; invalidated
       1973-10-19 after court ruling in Honeywell v. Sperry Rand.
    2. ^ ^a ^b Weik, Martin H. "The ENIAC Story". Ordnance. Washington,
       DC: American Ordnance Association (January-February 1961). Archived
       from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
    3. ^ "3.2 First Generation Electronic Computers (1937-1953)".
    4. ^ "ENIAC on Trial - 1. Public Use". www.ushistory.org. Search for
       1945. Retrieved May 16, 2018. "The ENIAC machine [...] was reduced
       to practice no later than the date of commencement of the use of
       the machine for the Los Alamos calculations, December 10, 1945."
    5. ^ Goldstine & Goldstine 1946, p. 97
    6. ^ Shurkin, Joel (1996). Engines of the mind: the evolution of the
       computer from mainframes to microprocessors. New York: Norton.
       ISBN 978-0-393-31471-7.
    7. ^ Moye, William T. (January 1996). "ENIAC: The Army-Sponsored
       Revolution". US Army Research Laboratory. Archived from the
       original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
    8. ^ ^a ^b Goldstine 1972, p. 214.
    9. ^ Richard Rhodes (1995). "chapter 13". Dark Sun: The Making of the
       Hydrogen Bomb. p. 251. "The first problem assigned to the first
       working electronic digital computer in the world was the hydrogen
       bomb. [...] The ENIAC ran a first rough version of the
       thermonuclear calculations for six weeks in December 1945 and
       January 1946."
   10. ^ McCartney 1999, p. 103: "ENIAC correctly showed that Teller's
       scheme would not work, but the results led Teller and Ulam to come
       up with another design together."
   11. ^ *"ENIAC on Trial - 1. Public Use". www.ushistory.org. Search for
       1945. Retrieved May 16, 2018. "The ENIAC machine [...] was reduced
       to practice no later than the date of commencement of the use of
       the machine for the Los Alamos calculations, December 10, 1945."
   12. ^ Brain used in the press as a metaphor became common during the
       war years. Looking, for example, at Life magazine: Overseas Air
       Lines Rely on Magic Brain. August 16, 1937. p. 45. (RCA

   the Magic Brain--is a development of RCA engineers. March 9, 1942.
   p. 55. (RCA Victrola).
   Blanket with a Brain does the rest!. December 14, 1942. p. 8. (GE
   Automatic Blanket).
   Mechanical brain sights gun. November 8, 1943. p. 8. (How to boss a

     ^ "ENIAC USA 1946". The History of Computing Project. History of
   Computing Foundation. March 13, 2013. Archived from the original on
   January 4, 2021.

     ^ Dalakov, Georgi. "ENIAC". History of Computers. Georgi Dalakov.
   Retrieved May 23, 2016.

     ^ Goldstine & Goldstine 1946

     ^ Gayle Ronan Sims (June 22, 2004). "Herman Heine Goldstine".
   Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 30, 2015.
   Retrieved April 15, 2017 - via www.princeton.edu.

     ^ ^a ^b ^c Wilkes, M. V. (1956). Automatic Digital Computers. New
   York: John Wiley & Sons. QA76.W5 1956.

     ^ "ENIAC on Trial". USHistory.org. Independence Hall Association.
   Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved November 9,

     ^ ^a ^b ^c ^d ^e ^f ^g ^h ^i ^j ^k Light 1999.

     ^ "ENIAC". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved March 29, 2015.

     ^ Weik, Martin H. (December 1955). Ballistic Research Laboratories
   Report No. 971: A Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing
   Systems. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: United States Department of
   Commerce Office of Technical Services. p. 41. Retrieved March 29, 2015.

     ^ Farrington, Gregory (March 1996). ENIAC: Birth of the Information
   Age. Popular Science. Retrieved March 29, 2015.

     ^ "ENIAC in Action: What it Was and How it Worked". ENIAC:
   Celebrating Penn Engineering History. University of Pennsylvania.
   Retrieved May 17, 2016.

     ^ Martin, Jason (December 17, 1998). "Past and Future Developments in
   Memory Design". Past and Future Developments in Memory Design.
   University of Maryland. Retrieved May 17, 2016.

     ^ Peddie, Jon (June 13, 2013). The History of Visual Magic in
   Computers: How Beautiful Images are Made in CAD, 3D, VR and AR.
   Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4471-4932-3.

     ^ Goldstine & Goldstine 1946.

     ^ Igarashi, Yoshihide; Altman, Tom; Funada, Mariko; Kamiyama, Barbara
   (May 27, 2014). Computing: A Historical and Technical Perspective. CRC
   Press. ISBN 978-1-4822-2741-3.

     ^ The original photo can be seen in the article: Rose, Allen (April
   1946). "Lightning Strikes Mathematics". Popular Science: 83-86.
   Retrieved March 29, 2015.

     ^ Clippinger 1948, Section I: General Description of the ENIAC - The
   Function Tables.

     ^ Goldstine 1946.

     ^ "The incredible evolution of supercomputers' powers, from 1946 to
   today". Popular Science. March 18, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2022.

     ^ Burks 1947, pp. 756-767

     ^ Randall 5th, Alexander (February 14, 2006). "A lost interview with
   ENIAC co-inventor J. Presper Eckert". Computer World. Retrieved March
   29, 2015.

     ^ Grier, David (July-September 2004). "From the Editor's Desk". IEEE
   Annals of the History of Computing. 26 (3): 2-3.
   doi:10.1109/MAHC.2004.9. S2CID 7822223.

     ^ Cruz, Frank (November 9, 2013). "Programming the ENIAC".
   Programming the ENIAC. Columbia University. Retrieved May 16, 2016.

     ^ Alt, Franz (July 1972). "Archaeology of computers: reminiscences,
   1945-1947". Communications of the ACM. 15 (7): 693-694.
   doi:10.1145/361454.361528. S2CID 28565286.

     ^ Schapranow, Matthieu-P. (June 1, 2006). "ENIAC tutorial - the
   modulo function". Archived from the original on January 7, 2014.
   Retrieved March 4, 2017.

     ^ Description of Lehmer's program computing the exponent of modulo 2
     * De Mol & Bullynck 2008

     ^ "ENIAC Programmers Project". eniacprogrammers.org. Retrieved March
   29, 2015.

     ^ Donaldson James, Susan (December 4, 2007). "First Computer
   Programmers Inspire Documentary". ABC News. Retrieved March 29, 2015.

     ^ Fritz, W. Barkley (1996). "The Women of ENIAC" (PDF). IEEE Annals
   of the History of Computing. 18 (3): 13-28. doi:10.1109/85.511940.
   Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 12,

     ^ "Meet the 'Refrigerator Ladies' Who Programmed the ENIAC". Mental
   Floss. October 13, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2016.

     ^ "ENIAC Programmers: A History of Women in Computing". Atomic Spin.
   July 31, 2016.

     ^ Grier, David (2007). When Computers Were Human. Princeton
   University Press. ISBN 9781400849369. Retrieved November 24, 2016.

     ^ Beyer, Kurt (2012). Grace Hopper and the Invention of the
   Information Age. London, Cambridge: MIT Press. p. 198.
   ISBN 9780262517263.

     ^ ^a ^b Isaacson, Walter (September 18, 2014). "Walter Isaacson on
   the Women of ENIAC". Fortune. Archived from the original on December
   12, 2018. Retrieved December 14, 2018.

     ^ ^a ^b "Invisible Computers: The Untold Story of the ENIAC
   Programmers". Witi.com. Retrieved March 10, 2015.

     ^ ^a ^b Gumbrecht, Jamie (February 2011). "Rediscovering WWII's
   female 'computers'". CNN. Retrieved February 15, 2011.

     ^ ^a ^b "Festival 2014: The Computers". SIFF. Archived from the
   original on August 10, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2015.

     ^ "Army researchers acquire two new supercomputers". U.S. Army DEVCOM
   Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs. December 28, 2020. Retrieved
   March 1, 2021.

     ^ Sullivan, Patricia (July 26, 2009). "Gloria Gordon Bolotsky, 87;
   Programmer Worked on Historic ENIAC Computer". The Washington Post.
   Retrieved August 19, 2015.

     ^ "ARL Computing History | U.S. Army Research Laboratory".
   Arl.army.mil. Retrieved June 29, 2019.

     ^ Goldstine 1972, p. 182

     ^ Goldstine 1972, p. 226

     ^ Mazhdrakov, Metodi; Benov, Dobriyan; Valkanov, Nikolai (2018). The
   Monte Carlo Method. Engineering Applications. ACMO Academic Press.
   p. 250. ISBN 978-619-90684-3-4.

     ^ Kean, Sam (2010). The Disappearing Spoon. New York: Little, Brown
   and Company. pp. 109-111. ISBN 978-0-316-05163-7.

     ^ Kennedy, Jr., T. R. (February 15, 1946). "Electronic Computer
   Flashes Answers". New York Times. Archived from the original on July
   10, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015.

     ^ Honeywell, Inc. v. Sperry Rand Corp., 180 U.S.P.Q. (BNA) 673, p.
   20, finding 1.1.3 (U.S. District Court for the District of Minnesota,
   Fourth Division 1973) ("The ENIAC machine which embodied 'the
   invention' claimed by the ENIAC patent was in public use and
   non-experimental use for the following purposes, and at times prior to
   the critical date: ... Formal dedication use February 15, 1946 ...").

     ^ Evans, Claire L. (March 6, 2018). Broad Band: The Untold Story of
   the Women Who Made the Internet. Penguin. p. 51. ISBN 9780735211766.

     ^ ^a ^b ^c McCartney 1999, p. 140

     ^ McCartney 1999, p. 140: "Eckert gave eleven lectures, Mauchly gave
   six, Goldstine gave six. von Neumann, who was to give one lecture,
   didn't show up; the other 24 were spread among various invited
   academics and military officials."

     ^ ^a ^b ^c ^d ^e ^f "Eniac". Epic Technology for Great Justice.
   Retrieved January 28, 2017.

     ^ ^a ^b Goldstine 1947.

     * Goldstine 1972, pp. 233-234, 270, search string: "eniac Adele 1947"

          By July 1947 von Neumann was writing: "I am much obliged to
          Adele for her letters. Nick and I are working with her new code,
          and it seems excellent."

     * Clippinger 1948, Section IV: Summary of Orders
     * Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2014b, pp. 44-48

     ^ Pugh, Emerson W. (1995). "Notes to Pages 132-135". Building IBM:
   Shaping an Industry and Its Technology. MIT Press. p. 353.
   ISBN 9780262161473.

     ^ Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2014b, pp. 44-45.

     ^ Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2014b, p. 44.

     ^ Clippinger 1948, INTRODUCTION.

     ^ ^a ^b Goldstine 1972, 233-234, 270; search string: eniac Adele

     ^ ^a ^b Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2014b, pp. 47-48.

     ^ Clippinger 1948, Section VIII: Modified ENIAC.

     ^ Fritz, W. Barkley (1949). "Description and Use of the ENIAC
   Converter Code". Technical Note (141). Section 1. - Introduction, p. 1.
   "At present it is controlled by a code which incorporates a unit called
   the Converter as a basic part of its operation, hence the name ENIAC
   Converter Code. These code digits are brought into the machine either
   through the Reader from standard IBM cards*or from the Function Tables
   (...). (...) *The card control method of operation is used primarily
   for testing and the running of short highly iterative problems and is
   not discussed in this report."

     ^ Haigh, Thomas; Priestley, Mark; Rope, Crispin (July-September
   2014c). "Los Alamos Bets On ENIAC: Nuclear Monte Carlo Simulations
   1947-48". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 36 (3): 42-63.
   doi:10.1109/MAHC.2014.40. S2CID 17470931. Retrieved November 13, 2018.

     ^ Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2016, pp. 113-114.

     ^ Clippinger 1948, INTRODUCTION
     * Full names: Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2014b, p. 44

     ^ Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2016, p. 153.

     ^ See #Improvements

     ^ "Programming the ENIAC: an example of why computer history is hard
   | @CHM Blog". Computer History Museum. May 18, 2016.

     ^ Haigh, Thomas; Priestley, Mark; Rope, Crispin (January-March
   2014a). "Reconsidering the Stored Program Concept". IEEE Annals of the
   History of Computing. 36 (1): 9-10. doi:10.1109/mahc.2013.56.
   S2CID 18827916.

     ^ Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2014b, pp. 48-54.

     ^ Copeland 2006, p. 106.

     ^ Copeland 2006, p. 2.

     ^ Ward, Mark (May 5, 2014), "How GCHQ built on a colossal secret",
   BBC News

     ^ "Atanasoff-Berry Computer Court Case". Retrieved September 1, 2022.

     ^ ^a ^b ^c ^d ^e ^f ^g Haigh, Priestley & Rope 2016, pp. 46, 264.

     ^ Meador, Mitch (October 29, 2014). "ENIAC: First Generation Of
   Computation Should Be A Big Attraction At Sill". The Lawton
   Constitution. Retrieved April 8, 2015.

     ^ Haigh. et al. list accumulators 7, 8, 13, and 17, but 2018 photos
   show 7, 8, 11, and 17.^[full citation needed]

     ^ "Meet the iPhone's 30-ton ancestor: Inside the project to rebuild
   one of the first computers". TechRepublic. November 23, 2016. Bringing
   the Eniac back to life.

     ^ "ENIAC - Life-size model of the first vacuum-tube computer".
   Germany: Heinz Nixdorf Museum. Retrieved March 1, 2021.

     ^ "Milestones:Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, 1946".
   IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved August 3, 2011.

     ^ "Looking Back At ENIAC: Commemorating A Half-Century Of Computers
   In The Reviewing System". The Scientist Magazine.

     ^ Van Der Spiegel, Jan (1996). "ENIAC-on-a-Chip". PENN PRINTOUT.
   Vol. 12, no. 4. The University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the
   original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2016.

     ^ Van Der Spiegel, Jan (May 9, 1995). "ENIAC-on-a-Chip". University
   of Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 4, 2009.

     ^ Brown, Janelle (May 8, 1997). "Wired: Women Proto-Programmers Get
   Their Just Reward". Retrieved March 10, 2015.

     ^ "ENIAC Programmers Project". ENIAC Programmers Project. Retrieved
   November 25, 2021.

     ^ Kleiman, Kathy (July 2022). Proving Ground: The Untold Story of the
   Six Women Who Programmed the World's First Modern Computer. Grand
   Central Publishing. ISBN 978-1-5387-1828-5.

     ^ "Resolution No. 110062: Declaring February 15 as "Electronic
   Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) Day" in Philadelphia and
   honoring the University of Pennsylvania School of Engineering and
   Applied Sciences" (PDF). February 10, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2014.

     ^ Kim, Meeri (February 11, 2016). "70 years ago, six Philly women
   became the world's first digital computer programmers". Retrieved
   October 17, 2016 - via www.phillyvoice.com.



   Burks, Arthur (1947). "Electronic Computing Circuits of the ENIAC".
   Proceedings of the I.R.E. 35 (8): 756-767.

     Burks, Arthur; Burks, Alice R. (1981). "The ENIAC: The First
   General-Purpose Electronic Computer". Annals of the History of
   Computing. 3 (4): 310-389. doi:10.1109/mahc.1981.10043. S2CID 14205498.

     Clippinger, R. F. (September 29, 1948). Source. "A Logical Coding
   System Applied to the ENIAC". Ballistic Research Laboratories Report
   (673). Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved January
   27, 2010. {{cite journal}}: External link in |others= (help)

     Copeland, B. Jack, ed. (2006), Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley
   Park's Codebreaking Computers, Oxford: Oxford University Press,
   ISBN 978-0-19-284055-4

     De Mol, Liesbeth; Bullynck, Maarten (2008). "A Week-End Off: The
   First Extensive Number-Theoretical Computation on ENIAC". In Beckmann,
   Arnold; Dimitracopoulos, Costas; Loewe, Benedikt (eds.). Logic and
   Theory of Algorithms: 4th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE
   2008 Athens, Greece, June 15-20, 2008, Proceedings. Springer Science &
   Business Media. pp. 158-167. ISBN 9783540694052.

     Eckert, J. Presper, The ENIAC (in Nicholas Metropolis, J. Howlett,
   Gian-Carlo Rota, (editors), A History of Computing in the Twentieth
   Century, Academic Press, New York, 1980, pp. 525-540)

     Eckert, J. Presper and John Mauchly, 1946, Outline of plans for
   development of electronic computers, 6 pages. (The founding document in
   the electronic computer industry.)

     Fritz, W. Barkley, The Women of ENIAC (in IEEE Annals of the History
   of Computing, Vol. 18, 1996, pp. 13-28)

     Goldstine, Adele (1946). Source. "A Report on the ENIAC".
   FTP.arl.mil. 1 (1). Chapter 1 -- Introduction: 1.1.2. The Units of the
   ENIAC. {{cite journal}}: External link in |others= (help)

     Goldstine, H. H.; Goldstine, Adele (1946). "The electronic numerical
   integrator and computer (ENIAC)". Mathematics of Computation. 2 (15):
   97-110. doi:10.1090/S0025-5718-1946-0018977-0. ISSN 0025-5718. (also
   reprinted in The Origins of Digital Computers: Selected Papers,
   Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982, pp. 359-373)

     Goldstine, Adele K. (July 10, 1947). Central Control for ENIAC. p. 1.
   "Unlike the later 60- and 100-order codes this one [51 order code]
   required no additions to ENIAC's original hardware. It would have
   worked more slowly and offered a more restricted range of instructions
   but the basic structure of accumulators and instructions changed only

     Goldstine, Herman H. (1972). The Computer: from Pascal to von
   Neumann. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
   ISBN 978-0-691-02367-0.

     Haigh, Thomas; Priestley, Mark; Rope, Crispin (April-June 2014b).
   "Engineering 'The Miracle of the ENIAC': Implementing the Modern Code
   Paradigm". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 36 (2): 41-59.
   doi:10.1109/MAHC.2014.15. S2CID 24359462. Retrieved November 13, 2018.

     Haigh, Thomas; Priestley, Mark; Rope, Crispin (2016). ENIAC in
   Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer. MIT Press.
   ISBN 978-0-262-53517-5.

     Light, Jennifer S. (1999). "When Computers Were Women" (PDF).
   Technology and Culture. 40 (3): 455-483. doi:10.1353/tech.1999.0128.
   ISSN 0040-165X. JSTOR 25147356. S2CID 108407884. Retrieved March 9,

     Mauchly, John, The ENIAC (in Metropolis, Nicholas, Howlett, Jack;
   Rota, Gian-Carlo. 1980, A History of Computing in the Twentieth
   Century, Academic Press, New York, ISBN 0-12-491650-3, pp. 541-550,
   "Original versions of these papers were presented at the International
   Research Conference on the History of Computing, held at the Los Alamos
   Scientific Laboratory, 10-15 June 1976.")

     McCartney, Scott (1999). ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the
   World's First Computer. Walker & Co. ISBN 978-0-8027-1348-3.

     Rojas, Raul; Hashagen, Ulf, editors. The First Computers: History and
   Architectures, 2000, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-18197-5

     Stuart, Brian L. (2018). "Simulating the ENIAC [Scanning Our Past]".
   Proceedings of the IEEE. 106 (4): 761-772.

     Stuart, Brian L. (2018). "Programming the ENIAC [Scanning Our Past]".
   Proceedings of the IEEE. 106 (9): 1760-1770.

     Stuart, Brian L. (2018). "Debugging the ENIAC [Scanning Our Past]".
   Proceedings of the IEEE. 106 (12): 2331-2345.

Further reading[edit]

     * Berkeley, Edmund. GIANT BRAINS or machines that think. John Wiley &
       Sons, inc., 1949. Chapter 7 Speed - 5000 Additions a Second: Moore
       School's ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)

   Dyson, George (2012). Turing's Cathedral: The Origins of the Digital
   Universe. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-375-42277-5.

     Gumbrecht, Jamie (February 8, 2011). "Rediscovering WWII's
   'computers'". CNN.com. Retrieved February 9, 2011.

     Hally, Mike. Electronic Brains: Stories from the Dawn of the Computer
   Age, Joseph Henry Press, 2005. ISBN 0-309-09630-8

     Lukoff, Herman (1979). From Dits to Bits: A personal history of the
   electronic computer. Portland, OR: Robotics Press.
   ISBN 978-0-89661-002-6. LCCN 79-90567.

     Tompkins, C. B.; Wakelin, J. H.; High-Speed Computing Devices,
   McGraw-Hill, 1950.

     Stern, Nancy (1981). From ENIAC to UNIVAC: An Appraisal of the
   Eckert-Mauchly Computers. Digital Press. ISBN 978-0-932376-14-5.

     "ENIAC Operating Manual" (PDF). www.bitsavers.org.

External links[edit]

   Wikimedia Commons has media related to ENIAC.

     * ENIAC simulation
     * Another ENIAC simulation
     * Pulse-level ENIAC simulator
     * 3D printable model of the ENIAC
     * Q&A: A lost interview with ENIAC co-inventor J. Presper Eckert
     * Interview with Eckert Transcript of a video interview with Eckert
       by David Allison for the National Museum of American History,
       Smithsonian Institution on February 2, 1988. An in-depth, technical
       discussion on ENIAC, including the thought process behind the
     * Oral history interview with J. Presper Eckert, Charles Babbage
       Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, a co-inventor of ENIAC,
       discusses its development at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore
       School of Electrical Engineering; describes difficulties in
       securing patent rights for ENIAC and the problems posed by the
       circulation of John von Neumann's 1945 First Draft of the Report on
       EDVAC, which placed the ENIAC inventions in the public domain.
       Interview by Nancy Stern, 28 October 1977.
     * Oral history interview with Carl Chambers, Charles Babbage
       Institute, University of Minnesota. Chambers discusses the
       initiation and progress of the ENIAC project at the University of
       Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering (1941-46). Oral
       history interview by Nancy B. Stern, 30 November 1977.
     * Oral history interview with Irven A. Travis, Charles Babbage
       Institute, University of Minnesota. Travis describes the ENIAC
       project at the University of Pennsylvania (1941-46), the technical
       and leadership abilities of chief engineer Eckert, the working
       relations between John Mauchly and Eckert, the disputes over patent
       rights, and their resignation from the university. Oral history
       interview by Nancy B. Stern, 21 October 1977.
     * Oral history interview with S. Reid Warren, Charles Babbage
       Institute, University of Minnesota. Warren served as supervisor of
       the EDVAC project; central to his discussion are J. Presper Eckert
       and John Mauchly and their disagreements with administrators over
       patent rights; discusses John von Neumann's 1945 draft report on
       the EDVAC, and its lack of proper acknowledgment of all the EDVAC
     * ENIAC Programmers Project
     * The women of ENIAC
     * Programming ENIAC
     * How ENIAC took a Square Root
     * Mike Muuss: Collected ENIAC documents
     * ENIAC chapter in Karl Kempf, Electronic Computers Within The
       Ordnance Corps, November 1961
     * The ENIAC Story, Martin H. Weik, Ordnance Ballistic Research
       Laboratories, 1961
     * ENIAC museum at the University of Pennsylvania
     * ENIAC specifications from Ballistic Research Laboratories Report
       No. 971 December 1955, (A Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital
       Computing Systems)
     * A Computer Is Born, Michael Kanellos, 60th anniversary news story,
       CNet, February 13, 2006
     * 1946 film restored, Computer History Archives Project

   Authority control: National libraries Edit this at Wikidata
     * Germany
     * Israel
     * United States

     * SILLIAC (1956)

     * WEIZAC (1955)

     * FACOM (1954)
     * FUJIC (1949)

     * SARA (1957)
     * SMIL (1956)
     * EDB-1 (1957)
     * TRASK (1964)

   Soviet Union (USSR)
     * BESM-6
     * ES-2701 [ru]
     * Mars (computer) [ru]
     * PS-2000
     * PS-3000 [ru]
     * SVS (computer) [ru]
     * Elbrus (computer)
     * Electronika SS VLSI [ru]

   See also
     * Soviet computer systems

   United States (US)
   IAS family
     * ILLIAC (1952)
     * AVIDAC (1953)
     * BESK (1953)
     * IBM 701 (1953)
     * JOHNNIAC (1953)
     * ORACLE (computer) (1953)
     * ORDVAC (1952)
     * WEIZAC (1955)
     * DASK (1955)
     * SARA (1957)
     * SILLIAC (1956)
     * SMIL (1956)
     * MANIAC I (1956)
     * MANIAC II (1956)
     * MISTIC (1957)
     * MUSASINO-1 (1957)
     * EDB-1 (1957)
     * EDB-2/3 (1957)
     * Cyclone (1959)

     * FACOM 201 (1960)
     * TRASK (1964)

   University of Illinois
     * ORDVAC (1952)
     * ILLIAC I (1952)
     * ILLIAC II (1958)
     * ILLIAC III (1966)
     * ILLIAC IV (1965)
     * CEDAR (1988)
     * ILLIAC 6 (2005)
     * Trusted ILLIAC (2006)

   Harvard University
     * Harvard Mark I (1944)
     * Harvard Mark II (1947)
     * Harvard Mark III (1949)
     * Harvard Mark IV (1952)

     * v
     * t
     * e

   IBM Vacuum Tube Computers
     * 305 RAMAC
     * 610
     * 650
     * 701
     * 702
     * 704
     * 705
     * 709

     * AN/FSQ-7
     * AN/FSQ-8

   IBM mainframes
   University of Pennsylvania
     * ENIAC (1945)

     * EDVAC (1949)
     * UNIVAC I (1951)

   Sperry Rand Corporation
     * UNIVAC II
     * See also: Computers built 1955 through 1978

     * RAYDAC (1953)

   See also
   UNIVAC family computers

   United Kingdom

     * Colossus computer (1943)

   See also

     * Vacuum-tube computers

   Retrieved from

     * Pennsylvania state historical marker significations
     * 1940s computers
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     * Vacuum tube computers
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