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Driving simulator

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   Professional simulator designed for beginner drivers
   This article is about the professional simulators. For the video game
   genre, see sim racing.
   Driving Simulator developed by (University of Valencia) Spain. Used in
   evaluation of drivers, roads, IVIS devices and other areas.
   Portable in-vehicle

   Driving simulators are used for entertainment as well as in training of
   driver's education courses taught in educational institutions and
   private businesses. They are also used for research purposes in the
   area of human factors and medical research, to monitor driver behavior,
   performance, and attention and in the car industry to design and
   evaluate new vehicles or new advanced driver assistance systems.
   [ ]


     * 1 Training
          + 1.1 Uses
          + 1.2 Types
     * 2 Entertainment
     * 3 Research
          + 3.1 Fidelity
          + 3.2 Validity
     * 4 See also
     * 5 References


   Driving simulators are being increasingly used for training drivers.
   Versions exist for cars, trucks, buses, etc.


     * Novice driver training and testing
     * Professional driver training and testing
     * Training in critical driving conditions
     * Testing the effects of impairment on driver performance
     * Analysis of the driver behaviours
     * Analysis of driver responses
     * Evaluating user performances in different conditions (handling of
     * Assessing fitness to drive for aging drivers
     * Testing future in-vehicle technologies on drivers or passengers
       (Human -Machine Interface)
     * entertainment and fun


     * Ambulance simulator: Used to train and assess ambulance drivers in
       basic and advanced vehicle control skills as well as how to respond
       to emergencies and interact with other emergency responders.
     * Car simulator: Used to train and test novice drivers in all the
       skills required to pass a driver's license road test as well as
       hazard perception and crash risk mitigation.
     * Modular-design simulator: Interchangeable vehicle cabins or
       cockpits can be configured for use as tractor/trailer trucks, dump
       trucks and other construction vehicles, airport-operated vehicles,
       emergency response and police pursuit vehicles, buses, subway
       trains, passenger vehicles, and heavy equipment such as cranes.
     * Multi-station driving simulator: This type of simulator enables one
       instructor to train more drivers at the same time thus saving time
       and reducing costs... These systems are equipped with instructor
       stations connected to control several driving simulators.
     * Truck simulator: Used to train and assess novice and experienced
       truck drivers in skills ranging from basic control maneuvers, e.g.
       shifting and backing, to advanced skills, e.g. fuel efficiency,
       rollover prevention, defensive driving.
     * Bus simulator: is used to train bus drivers on route
       familiarisation, safe driving techniques, fuel efficiency
       techniques. It can be used for training drivers on a variety of bus
       models and on different types of gear transmissions.
     * Physical simulator: Large scale simulators employ Stewart platforms
       and xy tables to physically move the driver around in 6-axis space,
       simulating acceleration, braking and centripetal forces, similar to
       physical flight simulators.


   Main articles: Racing game and Sim racing

   In the 1980s, it became a trend for arcade racing games to use
   hydraulic motion simulator arcade cabinets.^[1]^[2] The trend was
   sparked by Sega's "taikan" games, with "taikan" meaning "body
   sensation" in Japanese.^[2] The "taikan" trend began when Yu Suzuki's
   team at Sega (later known as Sega AM2) developed Hang-On (1985), a
   racing video game where the player sits on and moves a motorbike
   replica to control the in-game actions.^[3] Suzuki's team at Sega
   followed it with hydraulic motion simulator cockpit cabinets for later
   racing games such as Out Run (1986). Sega have since continued to
   manufacture motion simulator cabinets for arcade racing games through
   to the 2010s.^[1]

   In 1991, Namco released the arcade game Mitsubishi Driving Simulator,
   co-developed with Mitsubishi. It was a serious educational street
   driving simulator that used 3D polygon technology and a sit-down arcade
   cabinet to simulate realistic driving, including basics such as
   ensuring the car is in neutral or parking position, starting the
   engine, placing the car into gear, releasing the hand-brake, and then
   driving. The player can choose from three routes while following
   instructions, avoiding collisions with other vehicles or pedestrians,
   and waiting at traffic lights; the brakes are accurately simulated,
   with the car creeping forward after taking the foot off the brake until
   the hand-brake is applied. Leisure Line magazine considered it the "hit
   of the show" upon its debut at the 1991 JAMMA show. It was designed for
   use by Japanese driving schools, with a very expensive cost of
   AU$150,000 or US$117,000 (equivalent to $243,000 in 2021) per unit.^[4]

   Advances in processing power have led to more realistic simulators
   known as sim racing games on home systems, beginning with Papyrus
   Design Group's groundbreaking IndyCar Racing (1993) and Grand Prix
   Legends (1998) for PC and Gran Turismo (1997) for home consoles.

   Occasionally, a racing game or driving simulator will also include an
   attachable steering wheel that can be used to play the game in place of
   a controller. The wheel, which is usually plastic, may also include
   pedals to add to the game's reality. These wheels are usually used only
   for arcade and computer games.

   In addition to the myriad commercial releases there is a bustling
   community of amateur coders working on closed and open source free
   simulators. Some of the major features popular with fans of the genre
   are online racing, realism and diversity of cars and tracks.


   Driving simulators are used at research facilities for many purposes.
   Many vehicle manufacturers operate driving simulators, e.g. BMW, Ford,
   Renault. Many universities also operate simulators for research.
   Driving simulators allow researchers to study driver training issues
   and driver behavior under conditions in which it would be illegal
   and/or unethical to place drivers. For instance, studies of driver
   distraction would be dangerous and unethical (because of the inability
   to obtain informed consent from other drivers) to do on the road.

   With the increasing use of various in-vehicle information systems
   (IVIS) such as satellite navigation systems, cell phones, DVD players
   and e-mail systems, simulators are playing an important rule in
   assessing the safety and utility of such devices.


   There exists a number of types research driving simulators, with a wide
   range of capabilities. The most complex, like the National Advanced
   Driving Simulator, have a full-sized vehicle body, with six-axis
   movement and 360-degree visual displays. On the other end of the range
   are simple desktop simulators that are often implemented using a
   computer monitor for the visual display and a videogame-type steering
   wheel and pedal input devices. These low cost simulators are used
   readily in the evaluation of basic and clinically oriented scientific
   questions.^[5]^[6]^[7]^[8]^[9]^[10] The issue is complicated by
   political and economic factors, as facilities with low-fidelity
   simulators claim their systems are "good enough" for the job, while the
   high-fidelity simulator groups insist that their (considerably more
   expensive) systems are necessary. Research into motion fidelity
   indicates that, while some motion is necessary in a research driving
   simulator, it does not need to have enough range to match real-world
   forces.^[11] Recent research has also considered the use of the
   real-time photo-realistic video content that reacts dynamically to
   driver behaviour in the environment.^[12]


   There is a question of validity--whether results obtained in the
   simulator are applicable to real-world driving. One review of research
   studies found that driver behavior on a driving simulator approximates
   (relative validity) but does not exactly replicate (absolute validity)
   on-road driving behavior.^[13] Another study found absolute validity
   for the types and number of driver errors committed on a simulator and
   on the road.^[14] Yet another study found that drivers who reported
   impaired performance on a low fidelity driving simulator were
   significantly more likely to take part in an accident in which the
   driver was at least partially at fault, within five years after the
   simulator session.^[15] Some research teams are using automated
   vehicles to recreate simulator studies on a test track, enabling a more
   direct comparison between the simulator study and the real world.^[16]
   As computers have grown faster and simulation is more widespread in the
   automotive industry, commercial vehicle math models that have been
   validated by manufacturers are seeing use in simulators.

See also[edit]

     * Full motion racing simulator
     * Virtual reality simulator
     * Sim racing, collective term for auto racing games which aim to be
       realistic, but do not necessarily include motion simulation output
     * Flight simulator
          + Full flight simulator
     * Simulator ride


    1. ^ ^a ^b "Sega's Wonderful Simulation Games Over The Years". Arcade
       Heroes. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
    2. ^ ^a ^b Horowitz, Ken (6 July 2018). The Sega Arcade Revolution: A
       History in 62 Games. McFarland & Company. pp. 96-9.
       ISBN 978-1-4766-3196-7.
    3. ^ "The Disappearance of Yu Suzuki: Part 1". 1Up.com. 2010. p. 2.
       Archived from the original on 2016-06-02. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
    4. ^ "Japanese JAMMA Show". Leisure Line. Australia: Leisure & Allied
       Industries. November 1991. p. 5.
    5. ^ Li, Z., & Milgram, P. (2005). An Investigation of the Potential
       to Influence Braking Behaviour Through Manipulation of Optical
       Looming Cues in a Simulated Driving Task. Proceedings of the Human
       Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 49(17), 1540-1544.
    6. ^ Matthews, R. W., Ferguson, S. A., Zhou, X., Sargent, C., Darwent,
       D., Kennaway, D. J., & Roach, G. D. (2012). Time-of-Day Mediates
       the Influences of Extended Wake and Sleep. Chronobiology
       International, 29(5): 572-579
    7. ^ Baulk, S. D., Biggs, S. N., Reid, K. J., van den Heuvel, C. J., &
       Dawson, D. (2008). Chasing the silver bullet: Measuring driver
       fatigue using simple and complex tasks. Accident Analysis &
       Prevention, 40(1), 396-402.
    8. ^ Telner, J. A., Wiesenthal, D. L., & Bialystok, E. (2009). Video
       Gamer Advantages in a Cellular Telephone and Driving Task.
       Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual
       Meeting, 53(23), 1748-1752.
    9. ^ Telner, J. A. (2008). The effects of linguistic fluency on
       performance in a simulated cellular telephone and driving
       situation. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
       Annual Meeting, 1748-1752.
   10. ^ Rapoport, M. J., Weaver, B., Kiss, A., Zucchero Sarracini, C.,
       Moller, H., Herrmann, N., Lanctot, K., et al. (2011). The Effects
       of Donepezil on Computer-Simulated Driving Ability Among Healthy
       Older Adults: A Pilot Study. Journal of clinical
       psychopharmacology, 31(5), 587.
   11. ^ Greenberg J., Artz B., Cathey L. The Effect of Lateral Motion
       Cues During Simulated Driving. Driving Simulator Conference North
       America 2003 Proceedings, Dearborn, Michigan, October 8-10, 2003,
       CD-ROM (ISSN 1546-5071)
   12. ^ Heras, A.M.; Breckon, T.P.; Tirovic, M. (November 2011). "Video
       Re-sampling and Content Re-targeting for Realistic Driving Incident
       Simulation". Proc. 8th European Conference on Visual Media
       Production (PDF). pp. sp-2. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
   13. ^ Mullen, Nadia. Charlton, Judith, Devlin, Anna, and; Bedard,
       Michel (2011). Chapter 13: Simulator Validity: Behaviors Observed
       on the Simulator and on the Road. Handbook of Driving Simulation
       for Engineering, Medicine, and Psychology D. L. Fisher, Rizzo, M.,
       Caird, Jeff K., and Lee, John D. (eds.). Boca Raton, FL, CRC
       Press/Taylor & Francis
   14. ^ Shechtman, Orit, Classen, Sherrilene, Awadzi, Kezia, Mann,
       William (2009). "Comparison of Driving Errors Between On-the-Road
       and Simulated Driving Assessment: A Validation Study." Traffic
       Injury Prevention 10(4): 379-385
   15. ^ Hoffman, L., & McDowd, J. M. (2010). Simulator driving
       performance predicts accident reports five years later. Psychology
       and Aging, 25(3), 741-745
   16. ^ "Program develops new test track capability Archived March 22,
       2007, at the Wayback Machine". ITS Sensor. Winter 2004. Retrieved
       on February 14, 2007

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Sim racing
     * Driving simulator
     * Racing game
     * Auto racing
     * Motorsport
     * Computer simulation


     * Formula One Grand Prix (1991)
     * NASCAR Racing (1994)
     * Grand Prix 2 (1996)
     * Grand Prix Legends (1998)
     * Grand Prix 3 (2000)
     * Grand Prix 4 (2002)
     * NASCAR Racing 2003 Season (2003)
     * GT Legends (2005)
     * Race 07 (2006)
     * netKar Pro (2006)
     * GTR 2 (2006)
     * Ferrari Virtual Academy (2010)
     * Simraceway (2011)

   Active userbase
     * Richard Burns Rally (2004)
     * rFactor (2005-2015)
     * Assetto Corsa (2014-2018)
     * Automobilista (2016-2019)

   Currently developed
     * Live for Speed (2002-)
     * Rigs of Rods (2005-)
     * rFpro (2007-)
     * iRacing (2008-)
     * RaceRoom (2013-)
     * rFactor 2 (2013-)
     * BeamNG.drive (2015-)
     * Project CARS (2015-2020)
     * KartKraft (2018-)
     * Assetto Corsa Competizione (2019-)
     * Automobilista 2 (2020-)
     * NASCAR 21: Ignition (2021-)
     * Rennsport (2023)

     * Formula One video games
     * List of racing video games

     * Geoff Crammond
     * MicroProse
     * Papyrus Design Group
     * Warthog Games
     * Image Space Incorporated
     * Kunos Simulazioni
     * Sector3 Studios
     * Slightly Mad Studios
     * Reiza Studios
     * Motorsport Games

   eSports and events

     * rFactor 2
          + 24 Hours of Le Mans Virtual
          + Formula E Race at Home Challenge
          + Formula E: Accelerate
     * iRacing
          + eNASCAR Coca-Cola iRacing Series
          + eNASCAR iRacing Pro Invitational Series
          + EuroNASCAR Esports Series
          + INDYCAR iRacing Challenge
     * FIA-Certified Gran Turismo Championships
     * Formula One Esports Series


     * Racing wheel
     * Direct-drive wheel
     * Full motion racing simulator
     * Virtual reality headset
     * Force feedback


     * Tire model

     * v
     * t
     * e

   Video game genres

     * List of video game genres
     * Lists of video games by genre


     * Action horror
     * Battle royale
     * Beat 'em up
          + hack and slash
     * Fighting
          + platform fighter
     * Maze
          + Pac-Man clone
     * Platform
          + endless runner
          + Metroidvania
          + puzzle-platform
          + run and gun
     * Stealth
     * Survival
          + survival horror
     * Shooter
          + first-person
          + third-person
          + light gun
          + shoot 'em up
               o run and gun
               o twin-stick
          + arena
          + hero
          + tactical



     * Grand Theft Auto clone
     * Metroidvania
     * Soulslike


     * Graphic adventure
     * Escape the room
     * Interactive fiction
     * Interactive film
     * Visual novel


     * Roguelike deck-building


     * Action horror
     * Jump scare horror
     * Psychological horror
     * Survival horror
     * Reverse horror


     * MMOFPS
     * MMORPG
     * MMORTS
     * MUD
     * MOBA
     * MMOTBS


     * Roguelike deck-building


     * Action role-playing
          + soulslike
     * Dungeon crawl
     * Tactical role-playing


     * Construction and management
          + business
          + city-building
          + theme park
          + government
     * Falling-sand
     * Immersive sim
     * Life simulation
          + dating sim
          + virtual pet
          + god
          + social simulation
     * Mining


     * 4X
     * Auto battler
     * Multiplayer online battle arena
     * Real-time strategy
          + time management
     * Real-time tactics
     * tactical role-playing
     * Tower defense
     * Turn-based strategy
     * Turn-based tactics
          + artillery
     * Wargame
          + grand strategy wargame


     * American football
     * Association football
     * Australian rules football
     * Baseball
     * Basketball
     * Cricket
     * Fighting
          + professional wrestling
          + sumo
     * Fishing
     * Golf
     * Ice hockey
     * Racing
          + kart racing
          + sim racing
     * Rugby union
     * Snowboarding
     * Volleyball

   Vehicle simulation

     * Flight simulator
          + amateur
          + combat
          + space
          + Lunar Lander
     * Driving simulator
     * Submarine simulator
     * Train simulator
     * Vehicular combat

   Other genres

     * Digital tabletop
          + digital collectible card
     * Erotic
          + Eroge
     * Exergame
     * Incremental
     * Music
          + rhythm
     * Non-game
     * Party
     * Programming
     * Puzzle
          + hidden object
          + sokoban
          + tile-matching
          + puzzle-platform
     * Typing
     * Chess
          + Shogi
     * Alternate reality
     * Quiz

   Related concepts

     * AAA game
     * Advertising
          + advergame
     * Arcade game
          + Snake
     * Art game
     * Audio game
     * Casual game
     * Christian game
     * Crossover game
     * Educational game
     * FMV
     * Gamification
     * Indie game
     * Multiplayer video game
     * Nonlinear gameplay
          + open world
          + sandbox game
     * Nonviolent video game
     * Online game
          + browser game
          + online gambling
          + social-network game
     * Pervasive game
     * Serious game
     * Toys-to-life
     * Twitch gameplay
     * Virtual reality game
     * Video game clone
     * Co-op game

   Retrieved from

     * Driving simulators
     * Vehicle simulation games
     * Educational software
     * Automotive software
     * Simulation software
     * Driver's education

   Hidden categories:
     * Webarchive template wayback links
     * Articles with short description
     * Short description is different from Wikidata

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