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Chimney sweep

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   Person who cleans chimneys

   John Colfer, a chimney sweeper in 1850, Wexford, Ireland.

   A chimney sweep is a person who clears ash and soot from chimneys. The
   chimney uses the pressure difference caused by a hot column of gas to
   create a draught and draw air over the hot coals or wood enabling
   continued combustion. Chimneys may be straight or contain many changes
   of direction. During normal operation, a layer of creosote builds up on
   the inside of the chimney, restricting the flow. The creosote can also
   catch fire, setting the chimney and the building alight. The chimney
   must be swept to remove the soot. This was done by the master sweep.

   In Great Britain, the master sweeps took apprentices, typically
   workhouse or orphan boys, and trained them to climb chimneys. In the
   German States, master sweeps belonged to trade guilds^[1] and did not
   use climbing boys. In Italy, Belgium, and France climbing boys were

   The occupation requires some dexterity, and carries health risks.^[2]
   [ ]


     * 1 History
     * 2 Great Britain
          + 2.1 Climbing boys
          + 2.2 Health and safety concerns
          + 2.3 Regulation
     * 3 United States
     * 4 Sweeps' festivals
     * 5 Good luck omen
     * 6 Popular culture
     * 7 Today
     * 8 See also
     * 9 References
          + 9.1 Citations and notes
          + 9.2 Bibliography
     * 10 External links


   A master chimney sweep (right) and his apprentice boy, known as a
   Spazzacamino, in Italy at the end of the 19th century

   The Tudors in England had established the risk of chimneys and an
   ordnance was created in 1582 both controlling materials (brick and
   stone rather than plastered timber) and requiring chimneys to be swept
   four times per year to prevent the build-up of soot (which is highly
   flammable). Any chimney fire could be fined 3 shillings and 4

   With the increased urban population that came with the age of
   industrialisation, the number of houses with chimneys grew apace and
   the services of the chimney sweep became much sought-after.

   Buildings were higher than before and the new chimneys' tops were
   grouped together.^[4] The routes of flues from individual grates could
   involve two or more right angles and horizontal angled and vertical
   sections. The flues were made narrow to create a better draught, 14in
   by 9in (36  * 23 cm) being a common standard. Buckingham Palace had one
   flue with 15 angles, with the flue narrowing to 9in by 9in (23
   * 23 cm).^[5] Chimney sweeping was one of the more difficult,
   hazardous, and low-paying occupations of the era, and consequently has
   been derided in verse, ballad and pantomime.

   The first mechanical sweeper was invented by George Smart in 1803 but
   was resisted in the UK and the US. Joseph Glass marketed an improved
   sweeping machine in 1828; he is credited with being the inventor of the
   modern chimney sweep's brush.^[6] In the northern US, whites gave up
   the trade and employed black sweep-boys from the South.^[7] After
   regulation finally took hold in 1875 in the UK and the turn of the
   century in the US, the occupation became romanticized in popular media.

Great Britain[edit]

   This show a cross section of two chimneys with an internal diameter of
   about twenty eight centimetres in each is a climbing boy of about ten
   years old. To the left the boy is climbing by bracing his back and
   knees against the chimney. To the right the boy is 'stuck', his knees
   are wedged up against his chin, and calfs, thighs and torso block the
   chimney preventing him from moving up or down.
   A boy climbing to the left;
   A boy 'stuck' to the right.

   Boys as young as four climbed hot flues that could be as narrow as
   81 square inches (9  * 9 inches or 23  * 23 cm). Work was dangerous and
   they could get jammed in the flue, suffocate or burn to death. As soot
   is carcinogenic, and as the boys slept under the soot sacks and were
   rarely washed, they were prone to chimney sweeps' carcinoma. From 1775
   onwards there was increasing concern for the welfare of the boys, and
   Acts of Parliament were passed to restrict, and in 1875 to stop this
   usage.^[8] Lord Shaftesbury, the philanthropist, led the later

   Chimneys started to appear in Britain around 1200, when they replaced
   the open fire burning in the middle of the one room house. At first
   there would be one heated room in the building and chimneys would be
   large. Over the next four hundred years, rooms became specialized and
   smaller and many were heated. Sea coal started to replace wood, and it
   deposited a layer of flammable creosote in the inside surface of the
   flue, and caked it with soot. Whereas before, the chimney was a vent
   for the smoke, now the plume of hot gas was used to suck air into the
   fire, and this required narrower flues.^[9] Even so, boys rarely
   climbed chimneys before the Great Fire of London, when building
   regulations were put in place and the design of chimneys was altered.
   The new chimneys were often angular and narrow, and the usual dimension
   of the flue in domestic properties was 9 inches (23 cm) by 14 inches
   (36 cm). The master sweep was unable to climb into such small spaces
   himself and employed climbing boys to go up the chimneys to dislodge
   the soot. The boys often 'buffed it', that is, climbed in the
   nude,^[10] propelling themselves by their knees and elbows which were
   scraped raw. They were often put up hot chimneys, and sometimes up
   chimneys that were alight in order to extinguish the fire. Chimneys
   with sharp angles posed a particular hazard.^[11] These boys were
   apprenticed to the sweep, and from 1778 until 1875 a series of laws
   attempted to regulate their working conditions, and many first hand
   accounts were documented and published in parliamentary reports. From
   about 1803, there was an alternative method of brushing chimneys, but
   sweeps and their clients resisted the change, preferring climbing boys
   to the new humane sweeping machines.^[12] Compulsory education was
   established in 1870 by the Education Act 1870 but it was a further five
   years before legislation was put in place to license chimney sweeps and
   finally prevent boys being sent up chimneys.^[13]

Climbing boys[edit]

   Cross-section of a seven-flue stack in a four-story house with cellars.
   An 1834 illustration from Mechanics' Magazine, designed to show the
   contrast between mechanical sweeping and children sweeping chimneys.
     * A. a hearth served by vertical flue, a horizontal flue, and then a
       vertical rise having two right-angled bends that were difficult for
     * B. a long straight flue (14in by 9in) being climbed by a boy using
       back, elbows, and knees.
     * C. a short flue from a second floor hearth. The climbing boy has
       reached the chimney pot, which has a diameter too small for him to
       exit that way.
     * E. shows a disaster. The climbing boy is stuck in the flue, his
       knees jammed against his chin.
     * G. How a flue could be straightened to make it sweepable by
       mechanical means
     * H. A dead climbing boy, suffocated in a fall of soot that
       accumulated at the cant of the flue.

   The climbing boys, and sometimes girls,^[14]^[15] were technically
   called chimney sweeps' apprentices, and were apprenticed to a master
   sweep, who, being an adult, was too large to fit into a chimney or
   flue. He would be paid by the parish to teach orphans or paupers the
   craft. They were totally reliant on him: they or their guardians had
   signed papers of indenture, in front of a magistrate, which bound them
   to him until they were adults. It was the duty of the Poor Law
   guardians to apprentice as many children of the workhouse in their care
   as possible, so as to reduce costs to the parish. The master sweep had
   duties: to teach the craft and its mysteries, to provide the apprentice
   with a second suit of clothes, to have him cleaned once a week, allow
   him to attend church, and not send him up chimneys that were on fire.
   An apprentice agreed to obey his master.^[16] Once his seven-year-long
   apprenticeship was completed he would become a journeyman sweep, and
   would continue to work for a master sweep of his choice. Other
   apprentices were sold on to the sweep, or sold by their parents. Prices
   ranged from 7 shillings^[17] to 4 guineas.

   It was generally agreed that six was a good age to train a boy.^[18]
   Though Lord Shaftesbury once encountered one of the age of four, they
   were considered to be too weak.^[18] A master sweep would have many
   apprentices, who would start the morning by roaming the streets calling
   out "Soot -Oh, Sweep" or another cry to let the house-owners know they
   were around; this would remind the owners of the dangers of un-swept
   chimneys. When engaged, the master sweep would fix a cloth over the
   fireplace, and the climbing boy would take off his boots and any excess
   clothes, then get behind it. The flue would be as tall as the house and
   twist several times, and its dimensions would be 14in by 9in. He would
   pull his cap down over his face and hold a large flat brush over his
   head, and wedge his body diagonally in the flue.^[19] Using his back,
   elbows and knees, he would shimmy up the flue in the manner of a
   caterpillar^[18] and use the brush to dislodge loose soot, which would
   fall over him and down to the bottom, and a scraper to chip away the
   solid bits, as a smooth chimney was a safe chimney. Having reached the
   top he would slide back down at speed back to the floor and the soot
   pile. It was now his job to bag up the soot and carry it back to the
   master sweep's cart or yard.

   Soot was valuable and could be sold for 9d a bushel in 1840.^[20] An
   apprentice would do four or five chimneys a day. When they first
   started they scraped their knees and elbows, so the master would harden
   up their skin by standing them close to a hot fire and rubbing in
   strong brine using a brush. This was done each evening until the skin
   hardened.^[18] The boys got no wages but lived with the master, who fed
   them. They slept together on the floor or in the cellar under the sacks
   and the cloth used during the day to catch the soot. This was known as
   "sleeping black".^[19] The boy would be washed by the mistress in a tub
   in the yard; this might happen as often as once a week, but rarely. One
   sweep used to wash down his boys in the Serpentine.^[21] Another
   Nottingham sweep insisted they washed three times a year, for
   Christmas, Whitsun and the Goose Fair. Sometimes, a boy would need to
   be persuaded to climb faster or higher up the chimney, and the master
   sweep would light either a small fire of straw or a brimstone candle,
   to encourage him to try harder. Another method to stop him from "going
   off" (asphyxiating) was to send another boy up behind him to prick pins
   into his buttocks or the soles of his feet.^[22]

   Chimneys varied in size. The common flue was designed to be one and a
   half bricks long by one brick wide, though they often narrowed to one
   brick square, that is 9 inches (230 mm) by 9 inches (230 mm) or
   less.^[23] Often the chimney would still be hot from the fire, and
   occasionally it would actually be on fire.^[17]^[24] Careless climbing
   boys could get stuck with their knees jammed against their chins. The
   harder they struggled the tighter they became wedged. They could remain
   in this position for many hours until they were pushed out from below
   or pulled out with a rope. If their struggling caused a fall of soot
   they would suffocate. Dead or alive the boy had to be removed and this
   would be done by removing bricks from the side of the chimney.^[25] If
   the chimney was particularly narrow the boys would be told to "buff
   it", that is to do it naked;^[26] otherwise they just wore trousers,
   and a shirt made from thick rough cotton cloth.

Health and safety concerns[edit]

   The conditions to which these children were subjected caused concern
   and societies were set up to promote mechanical means for sweeping
   chimneys and it is through their pamphlets that we have a better idea
   of what the job could entail. Here a sweep describes the fate of one

     After passing through the chimney and descending to the second angle
     of the fireplace the Boy finds it completely filled with soot, which
     he has dislodged from the sides of the upright part. He endeavours
     to get through, and succeeds in doing so, after much struggling as
     far as his shoulders; but finding that the soot is compressed hard
     all around him, by his exertions, that he can recede no farther; he
     then endeavours to move forward, but his attempts in this respect
     are quite abortive; for the covering of the horizontal part of the
     Flue being stone, the sharp angle of which bears hard on his
     shoulders, and the back part of his head prevents him from moving in
     the least either one way or the other. His face, already covered
     with a climbing cap, and being pressed hard in the soot beneath him,
     stops his breath. In this dreadful condition he strives violently to
     extricate himself, but his strength fails him; he cries and groans,
     and in a few minutes he is suffocated. An alarm is then given, a
     brick-layer is sent for, an aperture is perforated in the Flue, and
     the boy is extracted, but found lifeless. In a short time an inquest
     is held, and a Coroner's Jury returns a verdict of "Accidental

   These however were not the only occupational hazards that chimney
   sweeps suffered. In the 1817 report to Parliament, witnesses reported
   that climbing boys suffered from general neglect, and exhibited stunted
   growth and deformity of the spine, legs, and arms, which were thought
   to be caused by being required to remain in abnormal positions for long
   periods of time before their bones had hardened. The knees and ankle
   joints were the most affected. Sores and inflammation of the eyelids
   that could lead to loss of sight, were slow in healing because the boy
   kept rubbing them. Bruises and burns were obvious hazards of having to
   work in an overheated environment. Cancer of the scrotum was found only
   in chimney sweeps so was referred to as Chimney Sweep Cancer in the
   teaching hospitals. Asthma and inflammation of the chest were
   attributed to the fact that the boys were out in all weathers.^[28]

   Chimney sweeps' carcinoma, which the sweeps called soot wart, did not
   occur until the sweep was in his late teens or twenties. It has now
   been identified as a manifestation of scrotal squamous cell carcinoma.
   It was reported in 1775 by Sir Percival Pott in climbing boys or
   chimney sweepers. It is the first industrially related cancer to be
   found. Potts described it:

     It is a disease which always makes it first attack on the inferior
     part of the scrotum where it produces a superficial, painful ragged
     ill-looking sore with hard rising edges ... in no great length of
     time it pervades the skin, dartos and the membranes of the scrotum,
     and seizes the testicle, which it inlarges [sic], hardens and
     renders truly and thoroughly distempered. Whence it makes its way up
     the spermatic process into the abdomen.

   He also comments on the life of the boys:

     The fate of these people seems peculiarly hard ... they are treated
     with great brutality ... they are thrust up narrow and sometimes hot
     chimnies, [sic] where they are bruised burned and almost suffocated;
     and when they get to puberty they become ... liable to a most
     noisome, painful and fatal disease.

   The carcinogen was thought to be coal tar, possibly containing some

   There were many deaths caused by accidents, frequently caused by the
   boy becoming jammed in the flue of a heated chimney, where he could
   suffocate or be burned to death. Sometimes a second boy would be sent
   to help, and on occasions would suffer the same fate.^[30]


   In 1788, the Chimney Sweepers Act 1788 (long title: An Act for the
   Better Regulation of Chimney Sweepers and their Apprentices) was
   passed, to limit a sweeper to six apprentices, at least 8 years old,
   but lacked enforcement.^[31] It introduced the Apprenticeship Cap
   badge. The Act had been partially inspired by the interest in climbing
   boys shown by Jonas Hanway, and his two publications The State of
   Chimney Sweepers' Young Apprentices (1773) and later Sentimental
   History of Chimney Sweeps in London and Westminster (1785). He asserted
   that while Parliament was exercised with the abolition of slavery in
   the new world it was ignoring the slavery imposed on climbing boys. He
   looked to Edinburgh, Scotland, where sweeps were regulated by the
   police, climbing was not allowed and chimneys were swept by the Master
   Sweep himself pulling bundles of rags up and down the chimney. He did
   not see how climbing chimneys could be considered a valid
   apprenticeship, as the only skill obtained was that of climbing
   chimneys, which did not lead to future employment.^[32] Hanway
   advocated that Christianity should be brought into the boys' lives and
   lobbied for Sunday Schools for the boys. The Lords removed the proposed
   clause that Master Sweeps should be licensed, and before civil
   registration, there was no way that anyone could check if a child was
   actually eight.

   In the same year, David Porter, a humane master sweep, sent a petition
   to Parliament, and in 1792 published Considerations of the Present
   State of Chimney Sweepers with some Observations on the Act of
   Parliament intended for their Relief and Regulation. Though concerned
   for the boys' welfare he believed that boys were more efficient than
   any of the new mechanical cleaning machines. In 1796 a society was
   formed for Bettering the Conditions of the Poor, and they encouraged
   the reading of Hanway's and Porter's tracts. They had influential
   members and royal patronage from George III.^[33] A Friendly Society
   for the Protection and Education of Chimney-Sweepers' Boys had been
   established in 1800.^[34]

   In 1803, it was thought by some that a mechanical brush could replace a
   climbing boy (the Human brush), and members of the 1796 society formed
   The London Society for Superseding the Necessity for Employing Climbing
   Boys;^[33] they ascertained that children had now cleaned flues as
   small as 7in by 7in, and promoted a competition for a mechanical brush.
   The prize was claimed by George Smart for what, in effect, was a brush
   head on a long segmented cane, made rigid by an adjustable cord that
   passed through the canes.^[35]

   The Chimney Sweepers Act 1834 contained many of the needed regulations.
   It stated that an apprentice must express himself in front of a
   magistrate that he was "willing and desirous". Masters must not take on
   boys under the age of fourteen. The master could only have six
   apprentices and an apprentice could not be lent to another master. Boys
   under fourteen who were already apprenticed must wear brass cap badges
   on a leather cap. Apprentices were not allowed to climb flues to
   extinguish fires. Street cries were regulated.^[36] The act was
   resisted by the master sweeps, and the general public believed that
   property would be at risk if the flues were not cleaned by a climbing

   Also that year building regulations relating to the construction of
   chimneys were changed.

   The Chimney Sweepers and Chimneys Regulation Act 1840 made it illegal
   for anyone under the age of 21 to sweep chimneys. It was widely
   ignored. Attempts were made in 1852 and 1853 to reopen the issue,
   another enquiry was convened and more evidence was taken. There was no
   bill. The Chimney Sweepers Regulation Act 1864, c. 37, tightened
   controls significantly, by authorizing fines and imprisonment for
   master sweeps who were ignoring the law, giving the police the power of
   arrest on suspicion and authorizing Board of Trade inspections of new
   and remodelled chimneys. Lord Shaftesbury was a main proponent of the

   In February 1875 a twelve-year-old boy, George Brewster, was sent up
   the Fulbourn Hospital chimneys by his master, William Wyer. He stuck
   and smothered. The entire wall had to be pulled down to get him out and
   although he was still alive, he died shortly afterwards. There was a
   coroner's inquest which returned a verdict of manslaughter. Wyer was
   sentenced to six months' imprisonment with hard labour. Lord
   Shaftesbury seized on the incident to press his campaign again. He
   wrote a series of letters to The Times and in September 1875 pushed
   another bill through Parliament which finally stopped the practice of
   sending boys up chimneys.^[37]^[38]

   The Chimney Sweepers Act 1875 required chimney sweepers "to be
   authorized by the police to carry on their businesses in the district",
   thus providing the legal means to enforce all previous

United States[edit]

   A studio portrait of four Afro-American climbing boys from New York,
   with brushes and scrapers, Two are standing and two are kneeling. They
   look between eleven and fourteen years old, wear rough clothes and
   battered hats and caps.
   A studio portrait of four New York climbing boys, with brushes and

   The history of sweeping in the United States varies little from that in
   the United Kingdom. Differences arise from the nature of housing and
   the political pressures. Early settler houses were built close together
   out of wood, so when one burnt it spread quickly to neighbouring
   properties. This caused the authorities to regulate the design of
   flues. From an early date, fire wardens and inspectors were appointed.

   Sweeping of the wide flues of these low buildings was often done by the
   householder himself, using a ladder to pass a wide brush down the
   chimney. In a narrow flue, a bag of bricks and brushwood would be
   dropped down the chimney. But in longer flues climbing boys were used,
   complete with the tradition of coercion and persuasion using burning
   straw and pins in the feet and the buttocks.^[7] Sweeping was not a
   popular trade. During the eighteenth century the employment of
   African-American chimney sweeps spread from the south to the north.
   African-American sweeps faced discrimination and were accused of being
   inefficient and starting fires. It was claimed that there were fewer
   fires in London where chimneys were swept by white boys than in New
   York City. As in the UK, Smart's sweeping machine was available in the
   US shortly after 1803, but few were used. Unlike the UK, there were no
   societies formed to advocate for the climbing boys. In fact, the
   contemporary novel Tit for Tat went so far as to deny the Black slave
   chimney sweeps' hardships by claiming that they had it easier than the
   London chimney sweeps.^[39]

Sweeps' festivals[edit]

   The London boys had one day's holiday a year, the first of May
   (Mayday). They celebrated by parading through the streets, dancing and
   twisting with Jack in the Green, merging several folk traditions.^[40]
   There is also a Sweeps' Festival in Santa Maria Maggiore,^[41] in Italy
   and in Rochester in Kent^[42] where the tradition was revived in 1980.

Good luck omen[edit]

     * In Great Britain it is considered lucky for a bride to see a
       chimney sweep on her wedding day. Many modern British sweeps hire
       themselves out to attend weddings in pursuance of this
     * In Germany, Poland, Hungary, Croatia, Czech Republic, Slovakia,
       Slovenia, Romania and Estonia chimney sweeps still wear the
       traditional all-black uniform with a black or white hat. It is
       considered good luck to rub or grasp one of your buttons if you
       pass one in the street.^[citation needed]
     * As a Lucky symbol, depictions of chimney sweeps are a popular New
       Year's Day gift in Germany; either as small ornaments attached to
       flower bouquets or candy, e.g. marzipan chimney sweeps.^[45] Their
       traditional uniform is an all black suit with golden jacket buttons
       and a black top hat.

Popular culture[edit]

   Chimney sweeps were often depicted in Victorian literature and later
   works about the Victorian period as heartless scoundrels who abused
   their child workers.^[citation needed]

   One of the most famous literary works about chimney sweeps^[46] is
   William Blake's poem, The Chimney Sweeper.

   Oliver Twist almost becomes an apprentice chimney sweep in chapter 3.

   One of the characters in the Mary Poppins books is The Sweep. Appearing
   on a few occasions, this chimney sweep is a workman frequently present
   on Cherry Tree Lane where the plot is set. He has worked for several of
   the families living there, including the main characters' Banks family.
   He believes it is good luck to shake hands with a sweep, so encourages
   all who meet him to shake hands with him. The Sweep is particularly
   friendly with the Banks children and, on one occasion takes them along
   for fireworks. In the film and the musical made on the basis of the
   book, the character of the sweep is merged with that of Bert, and
   becomes a much more prominent character. His superstition about shaking
   hands with a sweep is referenced in the song "Chim Chim Cher-ee". The
   composite character of Bert and the Sweep is portrayed by Dick Van Dyke
   in the 1964 film.

   In 1890 Empress Elisabeth of Austria aroused much public attention when
   expressing her firm support for her favorite daughter, Archduchess
   Marie Valerie of Austria, marrying for love rather than dynastic
   considerations. The Empress declared that "Marie may marry even a
   chimney sweep, if she so desired". In practice, however, Archduchess
   Marie's chosen bridegroom was no chimney sweep, but just a minor and
   undistinguished member of the reigning Habsburg family.


   A caucasian man of about forty stands on the ridge of a modern house
   next to a red brick chimney. He is in jeans and a polo shirt and wears
   leather safety gloves.On his back is a standard chimney sweeping brush
   and poles.
   Modern chimney sweep
   Chimney sweep in Hesse, Germany

   Today, chimney sweeps are still operating, as venting systems for coal,
   heating oil, natural gas, wood and pellet burning appliances need to be
   maintained. There is a greater understanding of the dangers of flue
   deposits and carbon monoxide and gases from combustion. The standard
   chimney brush is still used, along with more modern tools (such as
   vacuum cleaners, cameras and special chimney cleaning tools).^[example
   needed] Most sweeps are done from the bottom of the chimney, rather
   than the top, to prevent the dispersion of dust and debris and because
   it is safer for the chimney sweep to do the sweeping from this
   position. Inspection may be done from the bottom or top, or both if
   accessible. Chimney sweeps often encounter a range of unexpected
   objects^[47] in chimneys ranging from dead birds to tools, notes, love
   letters and other pieces of ephemera.

   Most modern chimney sweeps are professionals, and are usually trained
   to diagnose and repair hazards along with maintenance such as removal
   of flammable creosote, firebox and damper repair, and smoke chamber
   repair. Some sweeps also offer more complicated repairs such as flue
   repair and relining, crown repair, and tuckpointing or rebuilding of
   masonry chimneys and cement crowns.

   In the United States, the two trade organizations that help to regulate
   the industry are the Chimney Safety Institute of America and The
   National Chimney Sweep Guild. Certification for chimney sweeps are
   issued by two organizations: Certified Chimney Professionals and The
   Chimney Safety Institute of America, which was first to establish
   certification and requires sweeps to re-test every three years or
   demonstrate the commitment to education by earning CEUs through CSIA or
   the National Fireplace Institute to bypass the test. Certification for
   chimney sweeps who reline chimneys are issued by Certified Chimney
   Professionals and the Chimney Safety Institute of America. CEU credits
   may be obtained from these organizations and regional associations as
   well as private trainers.

   In the United Kingdom Chimney Sweeping is unregulated however many
   sweeps have organised themselves into trade associations including the
   Association of Professional Independent Chimney Sweeps,^[48] the Guild
   of Master Chimney Sweeps,^[49] and The National Association of Chimney
   Sweeps.^[50] As well as offering support to members they provide
   training and representation to DEFRA and other interested parties.

See also[edit]

     * Chimney sweeps' carcinoma
     * Kaminfegerkinder (Spazzacamini)


Citations and notes[edit]

    1. ^ Strange 1982, p. 40
    2. ^ Green, Kathleen (2010). "You're a What? Chimney Sweep".
       Occupational Outlook Quarterly. 54 (2): 30-31. ISSN 0199-4786.
    3. ^ Hidden Killers: The Horrors of Tudor Dentistry and other
       household ietms
    4. ^ Strange 1982, p. 7
    5. ^ Strange 1982, p. 64
    6. ^ Strange 1982, p. xiii
    7. ^ ^a ^b Strange 1982, p. 90
    8. ^ Strange 1982, p. 80
    9. ^ Strange 1982, pp. 5-6
   10. ^ Strange 1982, p. 30
   11. ^ Waldron 1983, p. 390
   12. ^ Strange 1982, pp. 46-47
   13. ^ Strange 1982, p. xiv
   14. ^ Mayhew 1861, p. 347
   15. ^ Strange 1982, p. 19
   16. ^ Strange 1982, p. 12
   17. ^ ^a ^b Strange 1982, p. 21
   18. ^ ^a ^b ^c ^d Strange 1982, p. 14
   19. ^ ^a ^b Strange 1982, p. 18
   20. ^ Mayhew 1861, p. 353
   21. ^ Strange 1982, pp. 71, 72
   22. ^ Strange 1982, p. 13
   23. ^ Strange 1982, p. 16
   24. ^ Strange 1982, p. 27
   25. ^ Strange 1982, p. 26
   26. ^ Strange 1982, p. 71
   27. ^ ^a ^b Waldron 1983, p. 391
   28. ^ Mayhew 1861, p. 350
   29. ^ Schwartz, Robert A. (2008). Skin Cancer: Recognition and
       Management (3 ed.). Wiley. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-470-69563-0. Retrieved
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   30. ^ Mayhew 1861, p. 351
   31. ^ ^a ^b "Key dates in Working Conditions, Factory Acts (Great
       Britain 1300 - 1899)". Retrieved 19 March 2012.
   32. ^ Strange 1982, p. 37
   33. ^ ^a ^b Strange 1982, p. 43
   34. ^ (The Times 16 April 1800, Page 1, Column b.)
   35. ^ Strange 1982, p. 44
   36. ^ Strange 1982, p. 65
   37. ^ "2 The Asylum Years". human-nature.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
   38. ^ Strange 1982, p. 31
   39. ^ Strange 1982, p. 93
   40. ^ Mayhew 1861, p. 370
   41. ^ "Museo dello Spazzacamino - Home page". museospazzacamino.it. 10
       September 2012. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012.
       Retrieved 8 April 2018.
   42. ^ Rochester Sweeps Festival Archived 3 July 2013 at the Wayback
   43. ^ "Chimney sweep weddings". chimneycleaners.co.uk. Retrieved 8
       April 2018.
   44. ^ http://www.luckysweepleicester.com/history^[dead link]
   45. ^ File:German new year's gift, four leaf clovers with chimney sweep
   46. ^ "Chimney sweep history - Return in Romans - History of chimney
       sweeping". doctorchimney.com. Archived from the original on 6 March
       2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
   47. ^ "STRANGE OBJECTS IN CHIMNEYS". Exeter Chimney Sweep. 1 April
       2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
   48. ^ The Association of Professional Independent Chimney Sweeps.
   49. ^ the Guild of Master Chimney Sweeps.
   50. ^ The National Association of Chimney Sweeps.



   Mayhew, Henry (1861). London Labour and the London Poor: A Cyclopedia
   of the Condition and Earnings of those who will work,...etc. Vol. 2
   (Cosimo Classics 2008 ed.). p. 346. ISBN 978-1-60520-735-3. Retrieved 6
   May 2011.

     Strange, K.H. (1982). Climbing Boys: A Study of Sweeps' Apprentices
   1772-1875 (PDF). London/Busby: Allison & Busby. ISBN 0-85031-431-3.
   Retrieved 6 May 2011.

     Waldron, H.A. (1983). "A brief history of scrotal cancer". British
   Journal of Industrial Medicine. 40 (4): 390-401.
   doi:10.1136/oem.40.4.390. PMC 1009212. PMID 6354246.

External links[edit]

     * BBC Schools Radio Archived 4 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine:
       Audio dramatisation of climbing boys testament.

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