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Chapter 31

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   1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

   2 Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites: afterward shalt thou
   be gathered unto thy people.

   3 And Moses spake unto the people, saying, Arm some of yourselves unto
   the war, and let them go against the Midianites, and avenge the LORD of

   4 Of every tribe a thousand, throughout all the tribes of Israel, shall
   ye send to the war.

   5 So there were delivered out of the thousands of Israel, a thousand of
   every tribe, twelve thousand armed for war.

   6 And Moses sent them to the war, a thousand of every tribe, them and
   Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, to the war, with the holy
   instruments, and the trumpets to blow in his hand.

   7 And they warred against the Midianites, as the LORD commanded Moses;
   and they slew all the males.

   8 And they slew the kings of Midian, beside the rest of them that were
   slain; namely, Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, five kings
   of Midian: Balaam also the son of Beor they slew with the sword.

   9 And the children of Israel took all the women of Midian captives, and
   their little ones, and took the spoil of all their cattle, and all
   their flocks, and all their goods.

   10 And they burnt all their cities wherein they dwelt, and all their
   goodly castles, with fire.

   11 And they took all the spoil, and all the prey, both of men and of

   12 And they brought the captives, and the prey, and the spoil, unto
   Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and unto the congregation of the
   children of Israel, unto the camp at the plains of Moab, which are by
   Jordan near Jericho.

   13 And Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the
   congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp.

   14 And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains
   over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle.

   15 And Moses said unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive?

   16 Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of
   Balaam, to commit trespass against the LORD in the matter of Peor, and
   there was a plague among the congregation of the LORD.

   17 Now therefore kill every male among the little ones, and kill every
   woman that hath known man by lying with him.

   18 But all the women children, that have not known a man by lying with
   him, keep alive for yourselves.

   19 And do ye abide without the camp seven days: whosoever hath killed
   any person, and whosoever hath touched any slain, purify both
   yourselves and your captives on the third day, and on the seventh day.

   20 And purify all your raiment, and all that is made of skins, and all
   work of goats' hair, and all things made of wood.

   21 And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of war which went to the
   battle, This is the ordinance of the law which the LORD commanded

   22 Only the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the

   23 Every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make it go through the
   fire, and it shall be clean: nevertheless it shall be purified with the
   water of separation: and all that abideth not the fire ye shall make go
   through the water.

   24 And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day, and ye shall be
   clean, and afterward ye shall come into the camp.

   25 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

   26 Take the sum of the prey that was taken, both of man and of beast,
   thou, and Eleazar the priest, and the chief fathers of the

   27 And divide the prey into two parts; between them that took the war
   upon them, who went out to battle, and between all the congregation:

   28 And levy a tribute unto the LORD of the men of war which went out to
   battle: one soul of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the
   beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep:

   29 Take it of their half, and give it unto Eleazar the priest, for an
   heave offering of the LORD.

   30 And of the children of Israel's half, thou shalt take one portion of
   fifty, of the persons, of the beeves, of the asses, and of the flocks,
   of all manner of beasts, and give them unto the Levites, which keep the
   charge of the tabernacle of the LORD.

   31 And Moses and Eleazar the priest did as the LORD commanded Moses.

   32 And the booty, being the rest of the prey which the men of war had
   caught, was six hundred thousand and seventy thousand and five thousand

   33 And threescore and twelve thousand beeves,

   34 And threescore and one thousand asses,

   35 And thirty and two thousand persons in all, of women that had not
   known man by lying with him.

   36 And the half, which was the portion of them that went out to war,
   was in number three hundred thousand and seven and thirty thousand and
   five hundred sheep:

   37 And the LORD'S tribute of the sheep was six hundred and threescore
   and fifteen.

   38 And the beeves were thirty and six thousand; of which the LORD'S
   tribute was threescore and twelve.

   39 And the asses were thirty thousand and five hundred; of which the
   LORD'S tribute was threescore and one.

   40 And the persons were sixteen thousand; of which the LORD'S tribute
   was thirty and two persons.

   41 And Moses gave the tribute, which was the LORD'S heave offering,
   unto Eleazar the priest, as the LORD commanded Moses.

   42 And of the children of Israel's half, which Moses divided from the
   men that warred,

   43 (Now the half that pertained unto the congregation was three hundred
   thousand and thirty thousand and seven thousand and five hundred sheep,

   44 And thirty and six thousand beeves,

   45 And thirty thousand asses and five hundred,

   46 And sixteen thousand persons;)

   47 Even of the children of Israel's half, Moses took one portion of
   fifty, both of man and of beast, and gave them unto the Levites, which
   kept the charge of the tabernacle of the LORD; as the LORD commanded

   48 And the officers which were over thousands of the host, the captains
   of thousands, and captains of hundreds, came near unto Moses:

   49 And they said unto Moses, Thy servants have taken the sum of the men
   of war which are under our charge, and there lacketh not one man of us.

   50 We have therefore brought an oblation for the LORD, what every man
   hath gotten, of jewels of gold, chains, and bracelets, rings, earrings,
   and tablets, to make an atonement for our souls before the LORD.

   51 And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of them, even all
   wrought jewels.

   52 And all the gold of the offering that they offered up to the LORD,
   of the captains of thousands, and of the captains of hundreds, was
   sixteen thousand seven hundred and fifty shekels.

   53 (For the men of war had taken spoil, every man for himself.)

   54 And Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of
   thousands and of hundreds, and brought it into the tabernacle of the
   congregation, for a memorial for the children of Israel before the
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Commentary for Numbers 31

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   War with Midian. (1-6) Balaam slain. (7-12) Those slain who caused sin.
   (13-38) Purification of the Israelites. (39-24) Division of the spoil.
   (25-47) Offerings. (48-54)1-6 All who, without commission from God,
   dare to execute private revenge, and who, from ambition, covetousness,
   or resentment, wage war and desolate kingdoms, must one day answer for
   it. But if God, instead of sending an earthquake, a pestilence, or a
   famine, be pleased to authorize and command any people to avenge his
   cause, such a commission surely is just and right. The Israelites could
   show such a commission, though no persons now can do so. Their wars
   were begun and carried on expressly by Divine direction, and they were
   enabled to conquer by miracles. Unless it can be proved that the wicked
   Canaanites did not deserve their doom, objectors only prove their
   dislike to God, and their love to his enemies. Man makes light of the
   evil of sin, but God abhors it. This explains the terrible executions
   of the nations which had filled the measure of their sins.
   7-12 The Israelites slew the Kings of Midian. They slew Balaam. God's
   overruling providence brought him thither, and their just vengeance
   found him. Had he himself rightly believed what he had said of the
   happy state of Israel, he would not have thus herded with the enemies
   of Israel. The Midianites' wicked wiles were Balaam's projects: it was
   just that he should perish with them, #Ho 4:5|. They took the women and
   children captives. They burnt their cities and castles, and returned to
   the camp.
   13-18 The sword of war should spare women and children; but the sword
   of justice should know no distinction, but that of guilty or not
   guilty. This war was the execution of a righteous sentence upon a
   guilty nation, in which the women were the worst criminals. The female
   children were spared, who, being brought up among the Israelites, would
   not tempt them to idolatry. The whole history shows the hatefulness of
   sin, and the guilt of tempting others; it teaches us to avoid all
   occasions of evil, and to give no quarter to inward lusts. The women
   and children were not kept for sinful purposes, but for slaves, a
   custom every where practised in former times, as to captives. In the
   course of providence, when famine and plagues visit a nation for sin,
   children suffer in the common calamity. In this case parents are
   punished in their children; and for children dying before actual sin,
   full provision is made as to their eternal happiness, by the mercy of
   God in Christ.
   19-24 The Israelites had to purify themselves according to the law, and
   to abide without the camp seven days, though they had not contracted
   any moral guilt, the war being just and lawful, and commanded by God.
   Thus God would preserve in their minds a dread and detestation of
   shedding blood. The spoil had been used by Midianites, and being now
   come into the possession of Israelites, it was fit that it should be
   25-47 Whatever we have, God justly claims a part. Out of the people's
   share God required one in fifty, but out of the soldiers' share only
   one in five hundred. The less opportunity we have of honouring God with
   personal services, the more should we give in money or value.
   48-54 The success of the Israelites had been very remarkable, so small
   a company overcoming such multitudes, but it was still more wonderful
   that not one was slain or missing. They presented the gold they found
   among the spoils, as an offering to the Lord. Thus they confessed, that
   instead of claiming a reward for their service, they needed forgiveness
   of much that had been amiss, and desired to be thankful for the
   preservation of their lives, which might justly have been taken away.
   Commentary by Matthew Henry, 1710.

   View more commentaries for this chapter:
   Pulpit   Gill's   Ellicott

Discussion for Numbers 31

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   How much gold was plundered after the battle with the Midianites?
     * (*) 16750 Shekels
     * ( ) 100 Shekels
     * ( ) 2000 Shekels
     * ( ) 24500 Shekels

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