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History of Hunting

   By Robert / December 3, 2021 May 26, 2022

   The existence and survival of man is built on hunting, it is the
   foundation on which civilizations and kingdoms were created.

   Many of the earliest records and artifacts discovered depict the basic
   natures of hunting and its importance amongst early man. The act of
   hunting has evolved over thousands of years, from the moment man hunted
   and harvested the very first animal to modern age technology, laws and
   the uses of hunting as a means of conservation.

   The history of hunting is a fascinating topic not only because it
   highlights how man became a better hunter, but it is full of incredible
   stories, provides us with insight into how our earliest ancestors
   survived, adapted, created societies built on status and the laws
   implemented to ensure there is enough hunting opportunity for all.

Earliest Signs of Hunting

   History of Hunting

   Many anthropologists agreed that humans began as scavengers and
   gatherers long before becoming skilled hunters. Animals 400,000 years
   ago and even as far back as 2 million years ago were very different to
   what we have today, this is especially true for the predatory species.
   Humans were low down on the food chain and had to rely on scavenging
   meat from the kills of larger predators in order to survive.

   Until recently the earliest documented evidence of humans actively
   hunting for meat was at a site in Germany showing horses being brought
   down by humans using long spears. The estimated age of this evidence is
   400,000 years old, however a recent discovery of animal bones and
   thousands of stone tools in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania has led
   archaeologists to believe that ancient hominins were more than mere

   The indigenous San people of Southern Africa are known for their very
   detailed paintings found within caves and on rock surfaces that clearly
   show them hunting large animals such as Eland, Kudu, Giraffe and Zebra
   with spears and bows. These painting are believed to be around 5,000
   years old are vital in creating a timeline of human's hunting history
   and their adaption to certain environments.

   For there to be further evidence of humans hunting dating back 400,000
   years and up to 2 million years ago, highlights the importance and
   significance that hunting has had in the survival of human beings.

   What evidence constitutes as hunting versus scavenging? From the
   discovery in Tanzania, archaeologists declared it hunting as whole
   skeletons from antelope sized animals were discovered, with cut marks
   on the bones which highlighted the meat was intentionally removed with
   a tool.

   Primary predators such as lions, leopards, and hyenas in Africa will
   consume large amounts of the carcass including some bones before
   abandoning the kill to scavengers. This was not the case with the
   discovery in the Olduvai Gorge, where entire skeletons were clearly
   visible. The lack of teeth marks on the bones of the animals was
   another clue that they had not been killed by larger predators, rather
   they were hunted, and the meat removed with tools.

What Hunting Did For Human Evolution?

   The physical act of hunting does not have to include the use of weapons
   or trapping material, records of primitive tribes from Southern and
   Northern America as well as Africa describe how hunters would chase
   their intended prey consistently over a long period of time, usually
   two days, until the animal collapsed from exhaustion.

   There is a suggestion from Brace and Montagu (1965) that man's
   near-hairlessness and wealth of sweat glands may be associated with
   this hunting technique. A superior cooling system would enable man to
   persist in tracking even in the hottest part of the day, when other
   carnivores are idle, and the quarry may face heat exhaustion.

   Recent history shows that Plains Indians, especially the Crow Tribe of
   1867 would drive bison over steep embankments or high cliffs, where the
   buffalo would fall to their death or break limbs leaving them incapable
   of running away. These drives although excessive to the needs of the
   tribe would involve the entire community.

   The bison would be driven on horseback by those men who were considered
   excellent hunters, while women, children and the older members of the
   tribe would hide behind trees and rocks lying in wait for the bison to
   pass. Once passed they would wave blankets and shout to direct the
   bison towards the edge of the cliff, where the bison would fall to
   their death.

   Working together would help strengthen the bonds between members of the
   tribe and share in the knowledge of hunting bison.

   The introduction of meat as a primary diet in human's ancestors,
   increased protein levels, fats and held a higher level of calories than
   most plants and roots. This allowed for the development of a larger
   brain in human related species.

   Coupled with the structural changes over thousands of years such as
   smaller jaw bones with less obtrusive teeth, a standing up right
   posture, the elongation of fingers and a thumb can be directly
   attributed to hunting, as well as the adaptation of arms and shoulders
   for the task of throwing and hurling weapons.

   Yet, it was not only the introduction of meat that contributed to the
   development of human's hunting abilities and intelligence, but another
   defining factor was the size and species of animals hunted.

   An interesting paper by Dr. Miki Ben-Dor and Prof. Ran Barkai from the
   Jacob M. Alkow Department of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University
   proposed an explanation for the physiological, behavioral and cultural
   evolution of the human species. The paper explains that as humans
   became more proficient in hunting larger animals, they inevitably
   caused the extinction of many of those large animals. With that, early
   human species had to adapt their hunting techniques and understanding
   of animal behavior to now hunt the smaller, quicker and highly alert
   prey species.

   Over time as the adaption to hunting smaller animals developed, the
   volume of human brains grew from 650cc to 1,500cc which is evident in
   archeological discoveries and studies over many years.

   Dr. Ben-Dor states "We correlate the increase in human brain volume
   with the need to become smarter hunters".

   It requires more energy and pressure on the brain to strategies for the
   hunting of many small antelope or rodent species compared to hunting
   one large animal such as an elephant or bison because it will sustain
   the hunter for a longer period. This energy use and pressure on the
   brain's functions forced it to develop at a quicker rate.

   An example in situation could be the need for fast tracking and
   decision-making as the small animal flees and the brain must analyze
   information such as tracks, wind, and general animal behavior to
   determine which direction the animal went and instruct the body to give

   The paper further explains that ultimately the brain developed so
   extensively that the concept of making tools for hunting was done so to
   relieve the hunter of using up valuable energy.

Early Hunting Tools

   History of Hunting

   With greater discoveries from Archaeologists over the years, it was
   clear that not only were humans physically changing and evolving but
   their tools were also being adapted with each circumstance and

   The earliest tools discovered that can be associated to hunting, were
   those of daggers, hand axes and non-throwing long spears. Although it
   can be argued these tools were more used for the processing of meat
   from animals killed by large predators and to an extent digging for
   roots and peeling bark, they are still capable of killing smaller

   The use of poison in early hunting tools was quite common amongst
   tribes and early inhabitants of tropical and heavily vegetative areas
   such as the forests of Central America and the Congo region of Africa.
   Poisons extracted from frogs, snakes, fishes and mushrooms were some of
   the more common sources.

   Artifacts discovered from ancient Egypt depict the use of animals to
   assist in the hunting of other animals. The Egyptians used greyhounds,
   birds of prey and even tame cheetahs to help in the catching and
   killing of their quarry.

   A huge evolutionary breakthrough in weapon creation was the innovation
   of the bow and arrow. This took the same concept of the spear but by
   shrinking it, it made it possible to project it some distance. It meant
   that one didn't have to work quite so hard to bridge the distance
   between the animal and hunter, and that the hunter was exponentially
   safer, as they could keep out of harm's way from sharp horns and

   The propulsion method of the arrow by notching it and drawing it back
   with string, as opposed to throwing it, improved its flights accuracy
   as well as it's velocity. It can be argued that the creation of the bow
   and arrow may have been done initially for warfare, but there is no
   denying it wasn't also used for hunting.

   Then came gun powder. Gun powder was discovered accidentally by Chinese
   alchemists who were searching for an elixir for mortality. They
   discovered that a mixture of potassium nitrate (Saltpeter), charcoal
   and Sulphur was highly explosive. It was originally discovered in or
   before 142AD and used in the manufacture of fireworks, until it was
   weaponized by the Song Dynasty in 904AD to fuel the trajectory of an
   arrow used in war against the Mongolians.

   The simple fire arrows soon evolved into more complex gunpowder fueled
   projectiles, better known as rockets. The Song Dynasty's success in war
   encouraged military innovators with rich incentives for new gunpowder
   ideas to be presented before the court. This led to improvements and
   increased mass production.

   An entire new industry full of opportunities for artisans, carpenters,
   tanners and the like sprang up. There is no direct evidence that the
   Song Dynasty used gun powder for hunting, but it is also not unlikely
   that they did not, as it would have made for a very efficient hunting
   tool. Still the discovery of gun powder itself, is a major milestone in
   the history of hunting.

   The first reference to gunpowder in European history was in 1267, and
   the two strongest theories of how it was brought to Europe is either
   during the Mongolian invasions or by being traded along the Silk Road
   through the Middle East. The first guns more closely resembled hand
   cannons that fired long arrows out of them and wasn't until the 1320's
   that guns became prevalent in European history.

Hunting as a means of status in society

   History of Hunting

   In early times the best hunters would bring home the most meat and
   their families would be physically better off. Hunting also gave
   warriors a chance to show off their battle skills and therefore
   hierarchies were established long before pre-dated civilization.

   There are documented theories of how hunting became recognized as an
   elitist activity in that only the nobles had sufficient time to pursue
   such a leisurely pastime, that it was a means for practicing warfare,
   or that it was a means that developed from gentry protecting peasants
   from dangerous animals.

   Royals, especially from European nations and regions were the ones who
   really established hunting as an activity reserved only for the highest
   members of society. They also pioneered many of the rules and
   regulations still enforced today. These are explained in depth further

   In ancient Egypt, after the first three dynasties extended their
   cultivated areas, ultimately draining the marshes around the Nile
   River, much of the larger game species moved on. With that chariot were
   then used to find, chase down and hunt those species. Pharaohs and
   noblemen were the only ones privileged enough to hunt large game and
   because domestication of animals was occurring at a rapid rate, hunting
   was regarded as the sport of kings and dignitaries.

   Greeks and Romans shared an enthusiasm for hunting, but the Romans
   distinguished between hunting by professionals and hunting by amateur
   sportsmen. Professionals sold the game they killed, at a market or
   hunted for their masters. Roman emperors enjoyed hunting for sport and
   the emperor Hadrian was famous for his skills as a hunter of lion, boar
   and other big game. Famous hunts were immortalized in poetry,
   paintings, songs and feasts were often held to celebrate a hunt.

   While all these aspects have a role in setting up hunting as an elitist
   hobby, the biggest change in the status of hunting within a society
   especially in the US most likely came about as a direct result of the
   industrial revolution. Large farming practices and agricultural
   production increased, which in turn decreased the need for hunting as a
   main protein source and de-elevated hunting from a survival necessity
   to a past time.

   Early firearms were expensive to purchase because of their scarcity but
   also because of the added costs associated. Farmers and low-income
   families could not afford the powders and projectiles needed to operate
   the firearms and so the hunting of animals with firearms was often only
   done by wealthy citizens.

   Even today many African cultures that still have strong ancestral ties,
   require a young man to complete a successful hunt in order to reach
   manhood. It is a rite of passage that needs to be completed so that
   they accepted amongst their peers and to remain in good standing within
   more traditional societies. One of the most famous examples of these is
   the Masai Mara lion hunts.

   Another example from Africa with regards to the importance of hunting
   in a societies' history is the San people of Southern Africa. The San
   had no chiefs or leaders, and nobody was given special importance. At a
   wedding the young man would have to bring an animal that he had killed
   as proof to his in-laws that he could provide for their daughter.

   Hunting also created conflicts between societies and civilizations.
   This is evident in the conflict between colonists and Indians over the
   ability to hunt on and access the rich hunting areas in the Ohio
   Valley, known today as West Virginia, Eastern Ohio and Pennsylvania was
   referred to as Lord Dunmore's War.

   A sustainable food source meant the expansion and opportunity for a
   community, nation, tribe or race to thrive was far greater. These food
   sources were fiercely guarded and, in many cases, poached by rivals.

Introduction of Hunting Regulations, Laws and Legislation

   Arguably the first officially documented rule in hunting was introduced
   by the initial Norman kings to England in the 11^th century. William I,
   who ruled in 1066 to 1087, initiated the Law of the Forest which
   outlawed any hunting on land declared as the King's Forest, reserving
   hunting in these designated areas for the Monarch and aristocracy by
   invitation only.

   In Portsmouth, Rhode Island 1646 the first closed hunting season was
   established in response to the decline in deer populations in the area.
   There was a 5 pound fine for anyone discovered harvesting game during
   the period of 1^st May - 1^st November. This set a precedent for other
   colonies to establish similar closed season and penalties to protect
   periods when animals were most vulnerable or during key breeding

   In the 1700 and 1800s states established laws that prohibited
   individuals from hunting in states that they did not have residency in
   or had not significantly contributed towards. For instance, in North
   Carolina in 1745 if one wanted to hunt in the state without owning land
   you would have had to have planted and tended to 5000 hills of corn in
   the preceding year in order to qualify for a hunt. Many other states
   had similar laws during this time that earmarked the local wildlife for
   the profits of citizens only.

   In 1872 certain counties of Maryland established a special license law
   that prohibited the use of sink boxes or sneak boats while shooting at
   wild waterfowl, except when in possession of a special license, that
   was available for sale to residents only.

   Similar special license laws started forming more commonly in order to
   protect local wildlife from external exploitation. Eventually, states
   started to realize the financial gain that they could obtain from
   charging non-residents a hunting fee, as opposed to excluding them

   The first of the like was a membership certificate in 1873 to the West
   Jersey Game Protection Society, which was obtainable by paying a yearly
   fee and was a prerequisite for non-residents to hunt in New Jersey. It
   was only in 1895 when Michigan put in place resident hunting licenses
   to restrict deer hunting that general hunting licenses became the norm.
   Even then, residents obtained massive discounts on their hunting
   licenses when compared to non-residents.

   When the American settlers began to move onto the plains during the
   expansion of America in the early 1800s, the bison, who were already an
   important food source to the Native Americans who resided there, became
   a valuable trading currency between Indians and new settlers. They were
   prized by both communities for their meat and hides.

   Indians traditionally hunted bison on foot with primitive weapons and
   it was a very sustainable system with the thousands of bison available
   at the time.

   The arrival of European settlers brought with them horses and guns,
   which made the bison easier to hunt. Mass hunts where members of the
   public were encouraged to fire upon herds from a moving train was
   encouraged to reduce the bison numbers, as there was a belief that by
   destroying the Native American's primary food source, they would
   accelerate the civilization of the Indians.

   In 1864 Idaho state became the first state to pass legislation to
   protect the bison, however, there were already no more bison left
   there. In the 1870's people began to capture bison and establish
   private herds as they recognized the economic value of them, and the
   wild herd populations continued to decline.

   In 1871 Wyoming introduced laws which forbad the waste of bison meat
   but didn't outlaw the hunting of them. The same law was attempted in
   1872 by Kansas legislation but was vetoed by the Governor, and in
   Colorado where it was passed but doubtfully enforced.

   In 1872 President Grant established the Yellowstone National Park,
   where it was against the law to kill any animal or bird. The surviving
   herd of 300 bison were protected in the park initially by the military
   and then by the formation of a special wildlife unit, or park rangers.

   Initially, the strongest penalty issued against poachers was their
   immediate removal from the area, but as public pressure increased the
   allowing penalties grew more severe. Upon Yellowstone's success other
   wildlife parks where established and eventually the bison numbers
   recovered back to about 200 000 animals.

   Similar behavioral patterns from settlers and their adverse effects on
   native game populations were documented in other European colonies,
   such as South Africa, Kenya, and India. Game populations were decimated
   as settlers exploited what seemed to be an inexhaustible supply.

   Along with hunting, native animal populations declined due to the
   introduction of new diseases brought with domesticated animals, and the
   loss of their natural habitat as agriculture practices expanded.

   In the 1800s various African colonies started implementing legislation
   to protect the indiscreet slaughter of certain species. These came in
   the form of closed hunting seasons, protection for immature animals,
   and by the late 1800's the formation of national parks. Frustrated by
   the failure of individual colonies' efforts in game preservation,
   colonial powers met in London in 1900 for the formation of an
   international hunting treaty.

   During the convection they identified 8 species in Southern Africa "on
   account of their rarity and threatened extermination" and afforded them
   protection by prohibiting the killing of the adolescences and females
   accompanying young.

   They also limited the number of certain animals which could be hunted
   per year and agreed to the establishment of large tracts of lands as
   game parks.

   The original idea from the 1900 convention was the creation of breeding
   grounds with sustainable game cropping, but due to interruptions to
   efforts made by World War One, the great depression, colonists'
   resentment towards game regulations and disease pressures from tsetse
   flies, the necessity for another conservation convention was called in

   This appealed for the establishment of sanctuaries or wildlife
   preserves that focused on complete segregation from human settlements
   and congregated animals into zoo-like reserves to be viewed and
   preserved for future generations.

   The original idea was for more practical and forward thinking but faced
   unfortunate application issues such as the timing of the war and
   disease pressures which forced conservationists at the time to try and
   find another solution, in the form of these stringently controlled,
   artificially manufactured game reserves. The likes of which we still
   see dominating the conservation structures of today's wildlife
   management systems in many countries.

   After the end of World War II applications for hunting licenses nearly
   doubled, and states used Pittman-Robertson funds to restock animal
   populations that were floundering. The Pittman-Robertson Federal Aid in
   Wildlife Restoration Act was established in 1937 and has been amended
   several times since its conception.

   It fundamentally procures a percentage of tax from sales of firearms,
   archery equipment and ammunition to be used in the acquisition,
   restoration, management and improvement of wildlife habitats and their
   associated animal populations. In addition, funds are made available
   for education and research that is related to wildlife conservation.

   The hunting regulations and laws introduced over the years have to a
   degree been beneficial to the hunter in the long run. Apart from the
   most obvious being to prevent the over exploitation of natural
   resources, the introduction of these laws seemed to break the mold and
   perception that hunting was only reserved for the wealthy and highest
   members of society. Because limitations were introduced it meant for
   opportunity to those that would otherwise not of been allowed to hunt.

Technological Developments of Hunting

   History of Hunting

   Since the discovery of the first known hunting tools almost 2 million
   years ago, up to modern day hunting weaponry, the advancements have
   been exceptional and ever changing. The capabilities of today's hunters
   far out-weighs what hunters were able to achieve 1,000 years, 100 years
   and even 20 years ago.

   Certainly, the biggest advancement in the history of hunting was the
   invention of the firearm. In 1607 when the first settlers arrived in
   Jamestown, Virginia they brought with them matchlock and wheellock
   styled firearms that were designed in Europe. These basic firearms were
   mostly used for defense and the hunting of wild game, but they were
   also traded with local Indian tribes for other resources.

   As the colonies expanded and more settlers arrived, so did their ideas
   and engineering skills. German settlers to Pennsylvania brought with
   them rifled firearms, which soon evolved into the classic American long
   rifle and laid the foundation for many hunting rifles used today.

   Today's technical advancements are a sign as to how the history of
   hunting has allowed humans to adapt and improve.

   It is not only the developments in rifles and archery that are
   impressive but also optics, clothing, electronics and transportation.

   Quality binoculars, spotting scopes and rifle scopes allow the hunter
   to see further and with more clarity. The first documented telescopic
   rifle sight was invented between 1835 and 1840 and although they were
   primarily used on military rifles, it wasn't long until they were
   adopted by hunters.

   Advanced clothing allows the hunters to blend in with surroundings,
   making them almost invisible to their targeted species and can also
   hide their scent. The introduction of boots and footwear means hunters
   can travel further and will be less affected by the adverse conditions
   experienced while hunting.

   Hunters have learnt how to communicate with animals over time and use
   them to their advantage for example, through electronic callers for
   coyotes and bobcats, mouth pieces to imitate a bugling elk, callers to
   bring turkey's closer and duck imitation devices enticing them within
   shotgun range.

   Transportation has been another massive key point in the history of
   hunting. Not only has the invention of automobiles allowed hunters to
   travel further after animals, but it has allowed hunters to reach areas
   rich in wildlife that were previously impossible to get to.

   The historical succession and improvement of hunting artillery has
   introduced a new paradox as to what technological advances should be
   embraced by modern hunters, and which of those are infringing on the
   unwritten rules of fair chase. As much hunting has developed, there may
   very well be a point at which it cannot develop further.

   The question which has recently developed is, at what point have the
   weapons evolved to such an extent that the hunter has an unfair

   Most of the time that decision is left up to an individual's own
   conscience and what feels right to them. However, there are some
   instances that governments decided that the technology has circumvented
   hunting ethnics and laws have been introduced to ensure continued
   sustainable hunting practices.

   For example, some states have outlawed the use of "smart" machines,
   including smart phones, certain gun calibers or computer operated gun
   technology. Several states have instated regulations and restrictions
   on drone usage during hunting, including locating and tracking wild

   It can be reasoned that the benefits of improved equipment are swifter
   kills that diminish the animals suffering and more meat is recovered
   from the carcass. One could argue that just because the technology is
   there doesn't mean that it must be used. There are still individuals
   who advocate hunting with traditional bow and arrows and even ancestral
   handheld spears in the 21^st century.

   Shannon Hobson of Houston Chronicle said of modern hunting advancements
   "If it doesn't deepen their connection with, and appreciation of, the
   land and life on it, don't use it. If it does, it's a direct connection
   to those first hunting tools created more than 2 million years ago."

   Regardless of the moralities and ethics that hunting technology faces
   today, it remains impressive just how far the history of hunting has
   come from etching stones to make spears and arrows, to rifles, optics
   and windage tools that allow a hunter to successfully kill an animal
   almost 700-yards away.

Hunting as a Sport

   Hunting shifted from being a necessity to a sport during those early
   years when societies used hunting to establish one's status and
   importance as previously explained.

   From royalty wagering bets on who could hunt the largest wild boars and
   stags, to the Indian tribes of North America that would challenge
   fellow hunters to see whose horse was quickest at chasing down antelope
   and bison across the prairies and even the ancient Egyptians reserving
   the right to hunt as a means of entertainment for the Pharaoh.
   Correlations between hunting and sport can be found.

   Many of today's sporting events that are showcased in the Olympics are
   derived from hunting. The javelin, hammer throw, archery, target
   shooting and even the modern-day pentathlon all has their origins
   firmly set in hunting.

   Early Games often held events that directly involved hunting. Live
   pigeon shooting was held in the 1900 Olympic Games in Paris, where the
   competitors had to shoot as many pigeons as possible in an allotted
   time. The first shooter to miss two birds in a row was eliminated.
   Protests from animal rights activists forced the International Olympic
   Committee to replace live pigeons with the clays they use today.

   Although a large majority of people today may perceive the action of
   hunting as a sport, the real definition of it is a lifestyle, an act of
   providing food for one's family, whether it be directly through hunting
   the animal or through a business related to hunting. Because many
   sports such as the ones mentioned above stem from hunting, it is
   understandable as to why it may be viewed as a sport, but that is not
   the case.

   Certainly, sport has been used to improve on one's hunting skills,
   through cardio exercise, muscle memory training or consistent practice
   using firearms and bows but hunting is not classified as a sport.

The Hunting Industry

   History of Hunting

   The development of hunting through the centuries and decades with its
   beginnings purely as a means of survival, invariably created a massive
   industry on many different levels.

   Gun and archery manufacturers, ammunition companies, camo clothing,
   optics, hunting outfitters, lodges, ATV builders, airlines, decoys,
   tree stand and blind makers, hunting clubs, television shows,
   conventions, exhibitions and many more are all businesses that directly
   and indirectly contribute towards the hunting industry.

   With focus on just the North American hunting industry alone, the U.S.
   Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in the 2011 National Survey of
   Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation reported that 13.7
   million people aged 16 or older went hunting that year and spent over
   $38.3 billion on equipment, licenses, trips and more. Businesses in the
   US directly related to hunting employ well over 680,000 people. The
   report further explains that hunting generated $11.8 billion in tax
   revenues for federal, state and local tax coffers.

   The hunting industry has helped develop income sources, created jobs
   and contributed towards conservation efforts in less developed
   countries in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia.

   An example of this is the trophy hunting safari industry in South
   Africa where $341 million is generated annually and it contributes
   directly to over 17,000 employment opportunities.

   The establishment of a large self-sustaining industry that provides
   opportunities to millions of people can be viewed as the pinnacle and
   culmination of hunting's long history.

Hunting as a Means of Conservation

   Ancient history shows that the physical preservation and management of
   wildlife species and areas was almost non-existent. Hunting was merely
   used to obtain food, not as a means of conservation and management.
   This is evident by the mass killings of the bison and other large
   species. It was only in recent history that man began to implement
   productive wildlife management conservation models.

   Wildlife management is a term that has evolved over the years. It was
   probably first used to describe the protection of people and their
   livelihoods from predators and pests by managing problem animals. Now
   it has progressed to include and even favor the protection of animals
   by managing their numbers and ecosystems to ensure their survival.

   The wildlife populations in North America suffered substantial losses
   after the expansion of the railroad in the 1860'and 70's, which made
   shipping meat and hides more convenient.

   A census in 1886 revealed that the bison herds had dwindled to only 540
   animals, and people began growing increasingly aware of the
   unsustainability of unregulated animal harvesting. Theodore Roosevelt,
   along with other influential hunters who are also advocates for
   conservation, formed the Boone and Crockett Club in New York in 1887,
   whose primary mission was to preserve the big game of North America.

   Many other hunting clubs were established during the 1880's and were
   organizations that lobbied for stricter laws to control animal product
   trade and reduce wastefulness in sport hunting.

   The Boone and Crockett club championed the philosophy of Fair Chase
   hunting, which as defined by the club is "the ethical, sportsmanlike,
   and lawful pursuit and taking of free-ranging wild game animals in a
   manner that doesn't give the hunter an improper or unfair advantage."
   These principles have been adopted around the world and influenced
   hunting cultures and game laws throughout the years.

   One of conservations greatest success stories through the history of
   hunting is the hunting industry itself within Southern Africa. As the
   demand for hunting grew, so the economic value of game reserves grew
   hand in hand. Land that was previously unsuitable for crop farming and
   not aesthetic enough for eco-tourism suddenly became variable
   investments as a hunting area.

   The reintroduction of game to arid and semi-arid game reserves in rural
   parts of South Africa helped grow the previously dwindling game
   populations back to healthy numbers. Certain species such as the
   Bontebok, white rhino and black wildebeest's numbers have improved so
   radically that they are now considered recovered from the edge of
   extinction. A large percentage of these animal populations are on
   privately owned game reserves that are only viable thanks to
   international hunters who reinvest into the local wildlife industry.

   There are many other great examples of how hunting through the years
   has been beneficial to conservation and wildlife management.


   The history of hunting cannot be traced from one exact moment in time
   precisely through the ages to modern day. Rather the history of hunting
   is entwined in the evolution of man, the civilizations that were built,
   wars fought, industries created, and wildlife habitats preserved.

   There is no doubt that hunting was crucial to man's survival and
   development, which is evident in early discoveries by archaeologists
   and studies performed by scientists.

   Although hunting is viewed negatively by many people in modern day
   times, there are just as many people that hold onto the principles and
   lifestyle of hunting which means its strong history will remain and
   there is no denying that without hunting, things today would be very


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About The Author


   Robert is the founder of Eating The Wild and has been hunting and
   fishing for as long as he can remember. He has a strong attachment to
   the great outdoors and his mission is to get more people involved in
   harvesting their own food from the wild.

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   Thanks for visiting As an avid outdoors person
   (hunting and fishing mostly)I love to mention and link to various
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