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The Psychopathological Profile of the Biblical God Called Yhwh (Yahweh): A
Psychological Investigation Into the Behaviour of The Judaic-Christian God
Described in The Biblical Old Testament..

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   Review Article | DOI:

The Psychopathological Profile of the Biblical God Called Yhwh (Yahweh): A
Psychological Investigation Into the Behaviour of The Judaic-Christian God
Described in The Biblical Old Testament..

     * G. Perrotta ID ^1*

   Department of Criminal and Investigative Psychology UNIFEDER.

   *Corresponding Author: Dr. G. Perrotta, Department of Criminal and
   Investigative Psychology UNIFEDER.

   Citation: Perrotta G. (2019) The Psychopathological Profile of the
   Biblical God Called Yhwh (Yahweh): A Psychological Investigation Into
   the Behaviour of The Judaic-Christian God Described in The Biblical Old
   Testament. J. Neuroscience and Neurological Surgery. 4(5); DOI:

   Copyright: (c) 2019 Dr. G. Perrotta. This is an open-access article
   distributed under the terms of The Creative Commons Attribution
   License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction
   in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

   Received: 27 August 2019 | Accepted: 13 September 2019 | Published: 27
   September 2019

   Keywords: psychology, mass psychology, beliefs, faith, religion, god,
   psychopathology, clinical psychology, psychiatry, personality disorder,
   borderline, narcissistic, antisocial.


   Starting from the figure of the Jewish-Christian and biblical
   ancient-testamentary God YHWH (Yahweh), now become the one and true
   God, omniscient and omnipresent, for Judaism and religions of Christian
   origin, through the manipulation of the "sacred" text and the
   historical facts narrated, the present study deals with the thorny
   question of the psychopathological profile of this very controversial
   figure. The aim is to define the general framework, in order to trace a
   psychopathological profile consistent with the letter of the first
   Jewish-Christian texts: a path that will accompany the reader to
   recognize the pathological traits of the narcissistic personality of a
   "war man", falsely transformed from theology to a good, just and
   merciful "God".


   . Introduction and necessary premises: General overview of the figure
   of "God" YHWH (Yahweh)

   2. The leadership profiles described in the Old Testament

   3. The psychopathological characteristics of the personality of YHWH

   4. Conclusions

   5. References

   1. Introduction and necessary premises: general overview of the figure
   of "God" YHWH (Yahweh)

   The present discussion elaborates in a structured and orderly manner
   all the conduct of the biblical God YHWH described in the Old
   Testament. It, therefore, appears evident, before continuing, to dwell
   on some dutiful promises that - if omitted - would make the reading of
   the elaborate rather complicated and partisan.

   The following psychological investigation on the described behaviours
   is not exempt from well-defined limits, which will be analysed during
   the elaborate; among the essential premises it is necessary to pay
   attention to the following elements [1]:

   1) the "fideistic profile". The present discussion is unrelated to
   theological or fideistic concepts; instead, the investigation analysed
   the objective characteristics described and represented in the
   ancient-testamentary biblical text. Therefore, the intent is not to
   judge a choice of faith or religious belief, as much as to analyse the
   descriptions in a literal key, according to the purpose of the biblical
   editors, without dwelling on the considerations in the literature
   of the religious and academic experts linked to the spiritual world,
   obviously partisan. Even the idea of analysing the question whether and
   how the image of God is reflected in the biblical authors ultimately
   falls because we would risk objectifying what by its nature is
   subjective and therefore run the risk of extending profiles to the
   community " selling them "for objective and universal. Conviction or
   not, the biblical authors have traced a descriptive profile of the
   behaviours of their God and therefore, those must be taken into
   consideration and nothing else as if they were real.

   2) the "historical profile". The present discussion is disconnected
   from useless and repetitive historical contextualizations already
   widely analysed in various editorial publications, signed by the
   writer. It is interesting, however, to underline how, even in
   literature, there are no absolute certainties about the identity of the
   authors of ancient-testamentary texts, as well as about the periods of
   writing. Moreover, in dozens of biblical passages, there are apparent
   historical errors, referring to facts, events and characters.
   Therefore, the intent here is not to challenge the reliability of
   biblical writings, as much as "to give for obvious" the correctness of
   the information contained therein, "pretending that" what is described
   is real. On this basis, the related behaviours can be objectivized and
   analysed in a psychopathological key, as if it were an actual patient.

   3) the "ethical and clinical profiles". The present discussion takes
   much care of the ethical profile linked to the combination of
   "psychopathology" and "divine", with particular attention to avoiding
   useless compromises related to personal and subjective convictions. The
   present discussion is an academic analysis of "docendi causa", for the
   reasons that will be explained during the debate. And if human
   behaviours can be studied according to psychopathological profiles,
   then even divine tones suffer the same comparison, because they derive
   from them and draw strength from them. To list compulsively the
   academic voices that have followed each other on the topic would be
   useless, because they take into account more sociological or
   anthropological profiles, keeping mostly distant from critical points
   that would expose the scholar to religious criticism.

   4) the "moral profile". As already stated, the academic intent is not
   to deepen the religious or fideistic themes or to analyse the
   anthropological construction of the ancient-testament God concerning
   the cults existing at that time and in that given context, as this
   error would affect the whole discussion. Indeed, not by chance, "that
   God" so subjective and linked to the Israelite context of the time
   (from the second millennium BC to the fourth century BC) was mistakenly
   linked to the Christian cults of the first four centuries AD,
   objectifying it and making it universal. The masterful fraud bold to
   the detriment of the populations by the Christian religious exponents
   of the early four centuries BC, then crystallized by the Emperor
   Constantine, made it possible to juxtapose the Jewish texts (the Old
   Testament) with the Christian Gospels, falsely connecting the ancient
   God testamentary with the God of the New Testament, totally different
   in structure and behavior. On this assumption, therefore, no
   provocative intent is inherent in this analysis; more than anything
   else it is essential to understand how the belief linked to the good
   and just God is the result of a theological manipulation disconnected
   from the biblical text itself.

   According to Christian theology, therefore, YHWH is the only existing
   God, creator of everything, right, just and capable of feeling love
   without differences of race, skin colour, language or sex. However, by
   carefully reading the biblical passages, in the translation approved by
   the Italian Episcopal Conference, a completely different truth emerges,
   also evident to those who blindly believe in their religious faith.

   As a preliminary point, the writer has directed this work according to
   a pure logic: "to pretend that" the biblical content tells the
   empirical truth, or what the editors of the very first version written
   in writing saw. The aim is to seek the truth, using the same tools as
   the theologians, but rigorously and methodically. [1]

   Continuing according to this approach, we cannot but draw the obvious
   consequences, focusing: first of all, the biblical character YHWH in
   his social context, in order to better understand his conduct, role and
   leadership, within the group and out of context territorial; in
   seconds, the psychopathological profiles of this character. Also,
   therefore, as specified in the introduction, we try to understand YHWH
   in its more general aspects better, analyzing first of all the
   character in his socio-environmental context.

   From the biblical letter, we know that YHWH was an "ish milchamah", a
   male / male war/battle individual (Exodus 15: 3), who gave instructions
   for conducting bloody battles against neighbouring peoples (Deuteronomy
   20); in fact, his conduct perfectly reflected this definition: in all
   the "sacred" texts of the Old Testament, YHWH was mainly devoted to
   this task, and never begs for suggestions of dubious morality: on how
   to advance in battle; on how to offer holocausts and animal sacrifices,
   on the best type of meat and fat to use to provoke the smoke that so
   pleasing (Numbers 28-29); on never feeling pity for enemies, even if
   these were women, elderly or children; on expressing specific strict
   orders, where disobedience was often paid with the death penalty. The
   general picture that emerges is all too clear: a man of war, I dedicate
   to the conquest of territories and the shedding of blood, often of
   innocent people.

   This violent nature of his also emerges in the many descriptions of his
   character: YHWH is often defined as a fire that destroys, devoted to
   anger, anger, without pity and violent; Deuteronomy 28: 63 describes it
   even in a precise manner: Yahweh is violent, angry, vindictive,
   hysterical, insecure, indifferent to human suffering, cruel, jealous

   We will continue this verse when we arrive at the psychopathological
   diagnosis of this controversial character; for now, however, taking for
   granted what has already been shown, we focus our attention on the
   relationship with his people.

   From reading the verses, we know that:

   a) YHWH frees his people, or rather the people inherited from Elyon,
   through Moses, commanding all his actions. On several occasions, among
   other things, he turns his anger against him for not having punctually
   put into practice the order given;

   b) in almost all the cases, YHWH addresses the "chosen" people only
   through prophets or men chosen by himself, to spread the word, which
   always consisted in imperative orders and solicitations to act because
   of the prize;

   c) YHWH does not hesitate, on several occasions, to kill the same
   members of the Israelite people, as a form of punishment, for having
   disobeyed orders or for not behaving as prescribed. Very often they
   perished innocently, and the weaker elements were hit, to show everyone
   else what they risked; a punitive repressive and non-rehabilitative
   sanction, which aimed only to instil terror in him, fame that among
   other things often preceded him in relations with other neighbouring

   2. The leadership profiles described in the Old Testament

   From these general elements, very interesting data already appear,
   linked to his role in society and to the leadership that he followed in
   the management of the people: however, his limited patience was a
   significant obstacle, often put to the test by that people, the
   Israelite, defined by the biblical text itself as "hard cervix" (Exodus
   32: 9-14). The bond that had been established was not one of reciprocal
   democratic dialogue but of military dictatorship of an absolutist
   nature. The leadership of that people was first of all delegated to the
   prophet on duty, who by his mouth, put into practice the orders of YHWH
   which, if disregarded, provoke the most disastrous ire, even coming to
   commit massacres of thousands of people.

   The leadership [2] pursued by the Judeo-Christian Old Testament god was
   utterly absent; his charisma was represented by a relationship of
   power, supported by a climate of terror, violence and threats,
   therefore an authoritarian and 3 autocratic pattern [4], according to a
   formal style [5], directive [6] -unidirectional- and toxic [7]: in
   essence, not a leader but a military commander who managed and
   controlled every aspect of the life of his men, in order to realize the
   ultimate goal of conquering the promised land.

   Not surprisingly, the people feared his "God", to the point of
   abandoning him if an opportunity presented itself or to replace him
   with other local divinities, discouraged by his oppressive and
   suffocating, violent and angry behaviour.

   In short, a description utterly opposed to the good, just and correct
   figure desired by Christian theology, which in any case alters the real
   extent of the figure built by the Jews: it is a notary fact, moreover,
   that the Christian faith bases its roots in traditions and on the
   Hebrew texts, to then detach and unduly appropriate cultures and
   traditions, mixing paganism and oriental cults, in a cream with
   slightly acid tones.

   3. The psychopathological characteristics of the personality of YHWH

   Summing up on what is expressed in this work, we can now proceed to
   define the personality aspects related to the character YHWH, keeping
   in mind what is described in the introduction, about the
   classifications of psychopathological disorders.

   <<[...] By "psychological diagnosis" we mean a general assessment of
   the subject concerning the psychological and psychopathological aspect,
   through the use of an integrated repertoire of questionnaires,
   personality inventories, batteries and test techniques (psychometric
   and projective), clinical interviews and observational evaluations. The
   type of techniques and tools used vary from time to time, based on the
   context and purpose of the assessment, the age and type of possible
   difficulties of the assessed subjects, and the theoretical orientation
   and specialist training of the evaluator. The psychologist is formally
   authorized to carry out a psychological diagnosis based on the art. 1
   of the Law n. 56/1989 (in Italy) concerning the ordination of the
   profession of psychologist (in Italy), where it is reported: "The
   profession of psychologist includes the use of cognitive and
   intervention tools for prevention, diagnosis, habilitation and
   rehabilitation activities and psychological support for the person,
   group, social organizations and communities " [...]>> [8].

   However, the psychiatric assessment must be clearly distinguished from
   the psychological one: in the first case, <<[...] the evaluation is
   usually of a nosological and psychopathological type and is carried out
   through a clinical and anamnestic interview, possibly supplemented by
   the administration of detection scales of the psychiatric
   symptomatology [...]>>[8]; in the second case, <<[...] psychological
   diagnostics can instead be of a broader type: in addition to the
   detection of psychopathological symptomatology, in fact,
   psychodiagnostic can also refer to the evaluation of aspects and
   processes of the personality, to the evaluation of attitudes,
   relational modalities, level and typology of cognitive skills,
   personality structure, ... [...]>>[8].

   The concept of "diagnosis" [8] presupposes the concept of "health",
   that is: the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
   and does not consist only in the absence of disease or infirmity. The
   possession of the maximum state of health that he is capable of
   achieving is one of the fundamental rights of every human being.
   Therefore, to be complete, it must:

   1) evaluate the patient from a global and multidimensional point of
   view: therefore, it is necessary to integrate the information obtained
   through the physical (physical) examination with the anamnesis of the
   patient and of the next relatives, in order to know also the personal,
   emotional and environmental experience, thanks to the help of a battery
   of ideal tests for the case in question, to frame the problem told by
   the patient himself or by who first exposed the question. More
   generally: << [...] psychological diagnosis is a process of: a)
   clinical observation (first basic level of abstraction); b)
   classification of clinical observations in a formal framework
   recognized by the scientific community (second level of abstraction);
   c) elaboration of hypotheses on the mechanisms of formation and
   maintenance of clinical outcomes (third level of abstraction) as well
   as for the purpose of choosing the treatment [...]>>;

   2) perform multiple functions: it is necessary to categorize the
   information obtained from interviews and tests, facilitates
   communication between the therapist and the patient, also defining the
   spaces for action and rehabilitation therapy, thus directing the
   positive action.

   In our case, however, since this is an a posteriori analysis of the
   facts narrated, the diagnosis will only play the purely theoretical
   function of educating the reader in the critical analysis of the
   biblical text. It is, therefore, an intellectual exercise; a teaching
   test in ius docendi, with no clinical purpose or diagnostic claim. On
   the other hand, the character YHWH is not even physically here to prove
   his existence, or to tell his truths, the perception of his experience
   and his exploits and any other data useful for diagnostic purposes;
   among other things, we must not forget that we are talking anyway about
   a being who, in the lucky case, possessed non-human qualities. We know
   that the label "God" is misleading, as the concept in the Bible does
   not exist; but we also know that certain descriptions would show his
   abilities out of the ordinary. Of course, it is not possible to know
   whether the descriptions referring to him are completely true or
   "romanticized"; what matters, however, is to examine the character, as
   told by the "sacred" writings, in order to better understand the
   reasons for his behaviour.

   Therefore, not being able to even submit to any personality test or
   clinical interview, useful for the diagnosis, and / or let us tell the
   social context in which he lived and his or her family history, we must
   necessarily take the narrated "for good" biblical, "pretending that"
   everything coincides perfectly with the truth: on the other hand, the
   fact that the whole biblical story is narrated by third parties cannot
   be minimized and the only text that perhaps could bear the signature of
   our protagonist has mysteriously gone lost.

   With this soul, therefore, we finally proceed to the didactic
   exposition of the elements analyzed in all this work, asking ourselves
   in the end what could be the psychopathological diagnosis of our
   "patient", if he presented the following 13 characteristics [9] [10]
   [11] [12]:

   I)  military leader and high religious authority of a group of people,
   in the form of a social aggregate, linked to each other by local
   geographic belonging;

   II) authoritarian. It imposes the rank of military leader and high
   religious authority, not as a leader or charismatic leader but of God,
   unique and only really able to fill that particular role. It obliges
   the Israelite people to respect all the 613 mitzvot
   (commands/prohibitions), under very strict punitive sanctions (almost
   always death);

   III) autocratic, formal and managerial. It uses strength, terror and
   violence to control its people and leaves no possibility to discuss the
   rules imposed by the above, in a formal and unidirectional way;

   IV) violent. It gains control of the territory and of the people with
   the threat of death or loss of all belongings, it has no respect for
   women, children, the elderly and people with physical difficulties, and
   often makes them victims to show everyone who is boss and what happens
   in case of transgression;

   V) wrathful and choleric. He gets angry and loses control quickly;
   often, the consequence is death for those who have transgressed or made
   the unwanted event possible. He does not tolerate dissidents and those
   who betray him, even going as far as to punish them with death;

   VI) vindictive. There is often no proportion between the offensive act
   and the assigned punishment. He tends to take revenge in a striking,
   violent and punitive way, showing that he cannot distinguish between
   good and evil, right and wrong. For him, only the conquest of the
   territories counts and to achieve this allows his people to exterminate
   any living being, also favouring slavery, sexual violence, infanticide,
   selective murder and massacres. He shows no displeasure or repentance,
   except on the occasion of excessive punishments addressed to the people
   of his people;

   VII) hysterical. He does not tolerate the people who betray him and who
   choose another God. In various biblical passages, he remembers in an
   almost obsessive way that his power is great and will vote to
   exterminate any living being, an enemy of his people;

   VIII) neurotic, obsessive, touchy and insecure. He does not miss the
   opportunity to remind his people that he is a jealous, vindictive and
   punitive God, who is the best of the other gods and that only his image
   can circulate. He is obsessed by the need to conquer the promised land,
   in theory, a gift to be allocated to his people; however, it is clear
   from the biblical passages that he alone is the only one to believe it.
   His people often abandon him or betray him, adhering to other gods, and
   the first punishes them and then continues with his personal mission,
   showing that he and his prophets truly believe in him. The mission that
   will never be completely accomplished;

   IX) indifferent to human suffering, misanthropic and racist. He shows
   no regrets after having massacred men, women, and children, justifying
   the deed committed due to disobedience or belonging to an enemy
   faction. It does not tolerate neighbouring peoples, and for this
   reason, with the excuse of conquering the promised land, it orders
   exterminations of any living being. It is intolerant to those who have
   diseases, deformities or physical difficulties, coming to order their
   removal from the community because they represent the imperfection;

   X) jealous. He is the one and only true God and does not accept
   competition with other deities. Although aware of the existence of
   other Gods and that these are in command of neighbouring peoples, he
   imposes himself as the one and true God of Israel, more powerful and
   more important than all the others;

   XI) cruel and sadistic. In several biblical passages, he does not miss
   opportunities to describe the atrocities he will commit or has
   committed, how to set off an epidemic of buboes, haemorrhoids or
   plague. Again, he describes dramatic events of revenge with raw
   language and without regard to how to "break the babies" or "rape your
   women in front of you, in the sunlight". He shows himself tolerant,
   just and good only with those who execute his orders to the letter;

   XII) paedophile trend. On one occasion, in particular, he demanded from
   the spoils of war 32 girls aged over three years. However, the question
   is controversial because, according to that culture and that historical
   and temporal context, it was permissible to perform sexual acts with
   children above that age;

   XIII) megalomaniac. The Old Testament adventure tells of the covenant
   of alliance between YHWH and its people and the promise of the first
   that would have inherited the promised land to its people, provided
   they fought against all the neighbouring peoples, committing crimes
   against humanity. Although the terrible crimes were committed, the
   promised land was never conquered and therefore never passed into an

   For big lines, this is the description of the ancient-testamentary
   "God" YHWH, today our virtual "patient". The investigations carried out
   by Schneider and Scholem, especially in the field of kabbalistic and
   Jewish tradition (although strongly influenced by their religious and
   fideistic approach), can certainly not be excluded from the topic under
   examination: indeed, if the biblical God was considered a strict
   father, in the Jewish cult, which dispensed prizes and punishments on
   the basis of obedience, in Christian worship he assumes a dual
   function: severe but just in the Old Testament, good, understanding and
   lovable in the New Testament. This dualistic view is seriously
   compromised by the speculative attempts of Christian theology that has
   tampered with and manipulated the Jewish writings by appropriating
   paternity in a completely arbitrary and incoherent manner with respect
   to the literal text of the sacred scriptures that still today identify
   the biblical God as the God of Israel and not of the whole world. The
   thesis, therefore of the good and just God is not supported
   historically and philologically, also disavowed by all those authors of
   the psychological strand that have analyzed the profiles in the

   The theoretical approach that we will follow will refer only to the
   strictly clinical one, avoiding the reader to lose himself in the
   psychological meanders of other possible interpretations [13]. Once the
   boundary line is drawn, we now define the possible diagnosis, according
   to the DSM-V [14], always keeping in mind all the promises made.

   From a definite point of view, DSM-V recognises ten types of
   personality disorders grouped into three groups or clusters, based on
   descriptive analogies. We see only in detail the cluster (Group B
   (dramatic cluster) that refers to our subject in question [15]:

   A) Antisocial Disorder, formerly called psychopathy or sociopathy, is a
   personality disorder characterized mainly by non-compliance and
   violation of the rights of others, which manifests itself in an adult,
   at least since he was 15 years old. People with this disorder, in fact,
   fail to comply with the law, for which they perform illegal acts (e.g.,
   destroy property, cheat, steal), or social norms, for which they carry
   out immoral and manipulative behaviour (e.g. lying, simulating, use
   false identities) drawing profit or personal pleasure (e.g. money, sex,
   power). The distinctive element of the disorder is, moreover, the
   scarce remorse shown for the consequences of one's actions, so that
   these people, after having damaged someone, can remain emotionally
   indifferent or give superficial explanations of what happened. Other
   relevant features of the antisocial disorder are impulsiveness and
   aggression. (...) The most frequently experienced emotions are anger,
   irritation, humiliation, contempt, detachment, boredom, envy, the
   pleasure of dominating and euphoria; hardly, instead, they feel
   emotions like gratitude, empathy, sympathy, affection, guilt and
   eroticism. (...) People who suffer from antisocial personality disorder
   have transient, superficial and antagonistic interpersonal
   relationships. (...) The sexual behaviour of these people is generally
   irresponsible and utilitarian; in the course of life, they can have
   numerous sexual partners and never have monogamous relationships.
   Furthermore, those who have an antisocial personality disorder believe
   they are special and therefore deserve favouritism and easy
   gratification. He can show excessive self-confidence (for example, he
   may think that an ordinary job is not worthy of him) and casual and
   superficial charm. (...) The aggressiveness that characterizes the
   disorder frequently manifests itself with physical aggression (e.g.
   beating the spouse). Impulsiveness, on the other hand, can manifest
   itself with the inability to plan for the future, so these people make
   decisions at the moment, without considering the consequences for
   themselves and others. Those who have antisocial disorder also tend to
   be strongly irresponsible. (...) People who have this disorder show low
   tolerance to frustration, so when things do not go their way, they
   cannot give up pleasure or procrastinate and act impulsively to reach
   it. Another characteristic of the antisocial disorder is the fantastic
   pseudology, a behaviour that consists in continually telling real facts
   along with invented stories, so it becomes difficult for the listener
   to distinguish the truth from the lies. This feature seems to recall
   that of the famous Baron of Munchausen, but it is profoundly different:
   the literary character told stories that were invented and scarcely
   credible without any utilitarian purpose; the antisocial patient, on
   the other hand, invents stories with the clear intention of
   manipulating the other. Minor manifestations of this disorder are
   dysphoria, tension complaints, inability to tolerate boredom and
   depressed mood [...]>>;

   B) Borderline Disorder is a personality disorder characterized by
   sudden changes in mood, instability of behaviours and relationships
   with others, marked impulsiveness and difficulty in organizing one's
   thoughts in a coherent way. (...) In summary, subjects suffering from
   borderline personality disorder present emotional and affective
   dysregulation with sudden attacks of anger, intense and episodic
   anxieties, feelings of emptiness, instability in the perception of self
   and others and impulsive behaviours. Some of these symptoms can also be
   found in other pathologies, so to get a serious and accurate diagnosis,
   it is necessary to turn to qualified people. It is possible, however,
   to make clarifications that can help distinguish this diagnostic
   category from others that can be assimilated. Borderline personality
   disorder has characteristics in common with mood disorders,
   particularly with bipolar disorder. In fact, both disorders present
   intense states of euphoria and depression. Borderline disorder,
   however, is characterized by a pervasive emotional dysregulation and
   context-dependent mood swings, particularly interpersonal
   relationships. In bipolar disorder, however, mood swings occur in a
   cyclical and context-independent manner. (...) Furthermore, a
   borderline personality disorder can be confused with the dissociative
   identity disorder, with which it has in common a sense of confusion
   about its own identity and the rapid fluctuations between completely
   different types of mood and behaviour. In borderline disorder, however,
   identity alterations do not aggregate into distinct personalities with
   different names, ages, preferences, memories and amnesia for past
   events, as occurs in the dissociative identity disorder. We must also
   differentiate borderline personality disorder from other personality
   disorders with similar characteristics, in particular, the dependent
   personality disorder and the histrionic personality disorder, with
   which it has in common the fear of abandonment by significant people,
   the sense of emptiness and the idea of being wrong. A final distinction
   must be made between borderline disorder and schizophrenia. The two
   disorders have some psychotic symptoms in common, but in borderline
   disorder, these are temporary and dependent on the state of the patient
   or the context. Finally, borderline subjects have greater personal and
   social functioning than people with schizophrenia [...]>>;

   B) Histrionic Disorder is a personality disorder characterized
   essentially by intense emotionality, expressed through theatrical
   modalities, and by constant attempts to gain attention, approval and
   support from others, by means of concealed or openly seductive
   behaviour. In addition to the dramatic and inappropriately seductive
   inter-personal style, impressionability, the tendency to somatization
   and the search for novelty characterize this disorder. (...) Some
   characteristics of histrionic personality disorder may also be present
   in other pathologies, from which this disorder must be distinguished.
   Rapidly changing emotionalism, the search for attention and
   manipulative behaviour, for example, also characterize borderline
   personality disorder, but in the latter, there are also
   self-destructive, anger breaks in interpersonal relationships and more
   intense states of emptiness and of alteration of identity. Both people
   with histrionic personality disorder and those with antisocial
   personality disorder tend to be superficial, manipulative, seductive,
   impulsive and looking for new and exciting situations, but the former,
   unlike the latter, manifest more intense emotional reactions, typically
   they do not carry out antisocial behaviour and perform manipulations to
   obtain attention and care, rather than material profit, power and
   gratification. Even those who have narcissistic personality disorder
   want the attention of others, but while he usually seeks praise for his
   supposed superiority, those who have histrionic personality disorder
   are also willing to appear fragile and dependent, to get attention.
   Moreover, those who present the narcissistic personality disorder can
   exaggerate the intimacy of their relationships, but generally,
   emphasize the social or economic position of their acquaintances. Even
   those who have dependent personality disorder are highly dependent on
   others for praise and support, but do not have the excessive
   emotionalism and theatrical style that characterize the histrionic
   personality disorder [...]>>;

   D) Narcissistic Disorder consists of a stable and lasting tendency to
   react defensively when the person feels a wound to his own value. As a
   reaction, it is easy for the person to adopt superb, arrogant attitudes
   that despise others and keep them from the causes of his problems.
   Individuals with this disorder consider themselves to be special and
   unique people. They expect to receive approvals and praise for their
   superior qualities, being baffled when they do not get the awards they
   think they deserve and often presenting the tendency to mull over this
   lack by the other. Along with this, there is a tendency in them to
   react to criticism by experiencing anger on the one hand and shame on
   the other. (...) The main "signs" of a narcissistic personality
   disorder are: to believe that people do not appreciate their high
   qualities and their special qualities; the idea that accounts do not
   return in one's life; for example, they were less successful than they
   expected or, despite personal achievements, they still feel a sense of
   emptiness, apathy and boredom; consider it extremely important to
   receive the attention and admiration of other people; to believe that
   everything is due: to demand, without reason, to receive a particularly
   favourable treatment or that one's requests are necessarily satisfied;
   tend to hide their difficulties; feel a sense of distance in affective
   relationships, or give them little importance or consider the partner
   an accessory figure in their existence; flaunt arrogant and
   presumptuous behaviour or attitudes [...]>>.

   For this survey, we will focus only on personality disorders, without
   investigating further the possible comorbidities of which our "divine"
   patient probably suffered. So we will focus only on some of these
   categories mentioned above, that is those that best represent the
   behaviour of YHWH described in the Bible (old testament). Therefore,
   three recurring features should appear striking in the eyes of the
   reader, which in some way fully influence the behavioural behaviour of
   YHWH: the authoritarian style, the natural subjection to anger and
   anger; megalomania. Let us analyze them individually according to the
   most classic profiles.

   Within the authoritarian style (I), we find the justification of the
   role that it covers, according to the biblical text, that is a military
   leader and a high religious authority, as also moral of the people of
   "hard cervix". Nothing strange, therefore, if his public image compels
   him to appear somehow to be a strong, authoritarian, autocratic, formal
   and managerial hand, to prevent any rebellion between the group.
   However, this approach seems to be desired in the first person by YHWH
   and not conditioned by the circumstances, because of its continuous
   insecurities, deriving from the obsessive fear of losing its people due
   to other Elohim, less rigid and more available. For this reason, he
   developed a strong sense of jealousy, turning the people assigned by
   Elyon into his personal object. This his irreproachable and extremely
   crystallized conduct in the hundreds of rules imposed, make him hateful
   and feared in the eyes of his people: this climate is far from any form
   of leadership: here there is not an Alpha subject that manages to
   convince people to do what he wants spontaneously; at most, there is a
   subject that with violence, threats and revenge, holds in its hands a
   people that never miss an opportunity to show its distrust.

   The easy subjection to anger and anger (II), deriving precisely from
   his insecurity, make him a feared, violent, vindictive, hysterical,
   touchy and neurotic subject. Feelings that are recognized by the
   Israelites themselves and by neighbouring peoples on different
   occasions. Not surprisingly, YHWH punished the people who subjected
   themselves to other Elohim, voting them to extermination.

   Megalomania (III), understood as a psychopathological tendency
   characterized by fantasies of wealth, fame and omnipotence, and
   profiles of grandeur, disproportionate to one's own strength, is the
   highest expression of his behavioural behaviour in YHWH. The image of
   Self is so distorted that it reaches to plagiarize the Israelites,
   assigned to him by Elyon, promising the land as a gift to other Elohim;
   to do this, he does not hesitate in ordering mass exterminations,
   justifying his own conduct and that of his people. With continuous
   promises of wealth and prosperity, it induces men who command to commit
   every possible atrocity, proving to be indifferent to human suffering,
   sadistic, misanthropic, racist and cruel.

   YHWH always appears and however aware: he wants to reach his goal and
   to do it, he is willing to do anything. He even realizes that he is
   "inferior", compared to what he received from Elyon, to the other
   Elohim, but this does not stop him, and he lets himself go to the most
   unrestrained jealousy, even killing those who betray him or those who
   even manifest the intention to do it. He does not even pity women,
   older people and children; indeed, with reference to the latter, it
   also seems to be dedicated to paedophilia [16], favouring sexual
   violence, slavery and the lending of money with interest.

   If we were to frame his behavioural behaviours in a framework of
   psychopathological personality, we would certainly have to refer to
   those personality disorders belonging to the "group/cluster B", which
   include the antisocial, the borderline, the histrionic and the
   narcissist. YHWH could undoubtedly fit more into the Narcissistic
   Personality Disorder, where the distinctive features, like DSM-V
   itself, are: 1) the grand idea of itself; 2) the constant need for
   admiration; 3) lack of empathy. << [...] The condition desired by the
   narcissists, in fact, is that in which they experience grandeur,
   superiority, dominion over the world, personal efficacy and the goal of
   their life is to remain as much as possible in that state. The
   occurrence of triggering events (...) is experienced as indicative of
   their failure and ineffectiveness. Narcissists are confronted with the
   perception of being a bluff, of "not worth anything" and they
   experience a negative oscillation of self-esteem that becomes
   intolerable. They feel sad, feel shame, fear, anguish and can even
   develop precise symptoms, such as panic attacks or depressive states
   that arise from the fact that the feared representation of oneself
   (defective self, bankrupt self) has turned to their consciousness, very
   often a vicious circle is triggered so that the depressed mood leads
   the subjects to focus attention only to one's own failures, to
   disappointed grand expectations, with a consequent worsening of mood
   which can lead to despair or even resignation, and the inability to set
   new goals Another way in which narcissists respond to the perception of
   The imminence of one's failure is anger, which can be directed against
   themselves or against others and such vault takes the form of
   mistreatment, both verbal and physical, towards the other that is often
   devalued or guilt-volatile because perceived as disabling (because it
   does not recognize them as grandiose) or intended to hinder the
   achievement of their goals or envious of their superiority. To restore
   a state of grandeur and power, narcissists can resort to the use of
   drugs and alcohol that generate relief from personal distress. They
   consider themselves special, unique, "the best." This leads them to
   think they have to attend or feel understood only by people who are
   equally special or of high social status. They also tend to act driven
   solely by the achievement of grandiose goals. They are showing great
   difficulty in accessing those most intimate desires that would make
   them feel more alive and vital. In other words, narcissists go on to
   "win", but do not know what they want in life, what gives them
   lightness and pleasure [...]> > [17].

   Therefore, this psychopathology: << [...] is characterized by a
   particular self-perception of the subject defined "grandiose Self". It
   involves an exaggerated feeling of one's importance and idealization of
   one's self - indeed a form of self-love which, from the clinical point
   of view, is false and difficulties in affective involvement. The person
   manifests a form of profound selfishness of which he is not usually
   aware, and whose consequences are such as to produce suffering, social
   distress or significant relational and emotional difficulties in the
   subject. In other words, the subject needs to continually create
   relationships that allow him to mirror his own self in a grandiose way,
   to find confirmations and to establish relationships based, often, on
   control and affective manipulation [...] >> [18].

   The diagnosis in question requires that at least 5 of the following
   symptoms are present in a way that forms a pervasive pattern, i.e. a
   pattern that tends to remain constant in different situations and
   relationships [19]:

   1. a grandiose sense of the self or an exaggerated sense of its own

   2. is occupied by fantasies of unlimited success, power, the effect on
   others, beauty, or ideal love;

   3. believes he is "special" and unique, and can only be understood by
   special people, or is excessively worried about seeking closeness /
   being associated with people of status (in some areas) very high;

   4. wishes or demands excessive admiration compared to the normal, or to
   its real value;

   5. has a strong sense of their rights and faculties, is unrealistically
   convinced that other individuals/situations must satisfy their
   expectations immediately;

   6. takes advantage of others to achieve their goals, and does not feel

   7. is lacking in empathy: does not notice (does not recognize) or does
   not give importance to other people's feelings, does not want to
   identify with their desires;

   8. often feels envy and is generally convinced that others feel envy
   for him/her;

   9. effective type of predatory type (unbalanced power relationships,
   with little personal commitment, desires to receive more than he gives,
   others are emotionally involved more than he/she is an arrogant and
   presumptuous behaviour.

   It is clear that, in our case, YHWH presents not five but 9 / 9
   symptoms, for a total of 100


    1. G. Perrotta, Le psicopatologie del dio biblico. 1DEG ed., LK ed.,
       2017. New edition: Luxco Ed., 2019.
       View at Publisher | View at Google Scholar

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